Values – comprise the things that are important to us.Asianizing’ Western ManagementManagement in Asian Content1. Tools of management remain the same.2. Economic and business philosophy and paradigms are, however, different. 3. In search of management science and art suited to Asian condition, the following elements must somehow be combined. a. General management techniques
b. Sectoral specializationc. Communal organization and managementBusiness Management the Asian Way1. Business tend to be small scale2. Fatalistic belief in the close relationship between man and nature 3. Time has no beginning and end4. Individualism is less relevant5. Conformity to sociality6. Oriental management rely less on interpersonal confrontations. 7. Managerial decisions consider effects on other people more often than in Western companies. 8. Control of performance is less formal
Values of Business Owners and Managers1. Economic Values2. Political Values3. Social Values4. Theoretical Values5. Aesthetic Values6. Religious ValuesPredominant Philippine Values1. Social acceptance2. Economic security3. Social mobilityManagement Filipino Style1. Manager “by kayod’2. Manager “by lusot”3. Manager “by libro”4. Manager “by oido”5. Manager “by ugnayan”Managing and LeadershipThere is a difference between a leader and a manager.Leader – is measured by how influence he has in stimulating people to strive towards an objective. Manager- is measured by how much he has attained an objective using not only human resources but nonhuman resources. Leader’s Style
1. Employee-centered – emphasizes concern over the welfare, harmony, well-being, and sensitivity to the needs of employees and subordinates. 2. Job-centered – is more concerned with completing the job scheduled or as specified to proper planning and application of appropriate managerial techniques. People versus Production-Managerial Grid
Another milestone in the study of leadership occurred right after World War II when the researchers of the Ohio State University found that there were two major concerns of manager/leaders, to wit; 1. Initiating structure- how concerned is the leader with organizational structure, job definition, pressure for producing outputs, channel of communication, and assessment of group output. 2. Consideration- concern of leader for mutual trust and respect, friendship, employee support, and effective informal communication.
Country Club Leadership – High People/Low ProductionThis style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Produce or Perish Leadership – High Production/Low PeopleAlso known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees.
Impoverished Leadership – Low Production/Low PeopleThis leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony.
Middle-of-the-Road Leadership – Medium Production/Medium PeopleThis style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect. Team Leadership – High Production/High People
According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production.