Chapter 1: Attractions – something that draws people to them. Permanency – attractions are largely permanent, locations are fixed. Drawing Power – Distance from which attractions draw people. Natural resources – Provide assets to sell to tourists. Climate – most common marketing them used as the basis for selling a tourism area. (once it has suitable attractions). Culture – Each country has their own unique culture. Historical Resources – defined into: 1.) war 2.) Religion 3.) habitation 4.) government
Chapter 2: Economic impacts of tourism – Tourism effects economy of destination areas. Three categories; 1.) Increasing foreign exchange earnings. 2.) increasing income. 3.) increasing employment. Leakage – occurs first from the cost of goods and services that must be purchased to satisfy the needs of visitors. Increasing income – most common method for estimating income generated from tourism is determining the income multiplier for the destination. Income multipliers measure the mount of local income generated per unit of visitor expenditure.
3 levels of income that must be analyzed: 1.) direction (first round of spending by visitors) 2.) indirect (second round of expenditures by the businesses who receive the first round). 3.) Induced ( the third and subsequent rounds – income). Environmental Impacts – tourism has often been a direct contributor to environmental degradation.
Chapter 3: Reasons for government involvement in tourism – First, there are political reasons. Tourism involves travel across national boundaries. Second there are environmental reasons. Tourism is based on such things as the scenery, history, and cultural heritage of destinations. When people make them more acceptable to foreign markets, it messes with that stuff. Third there are economic reasons.
Tourism generates income, creates jobs, helps in economic diversification and foreign exchange earnings. To enhance economic advantages government must be involved. Government Roles in tourism – is less developed countries government plays more hands on role in tourism development and operations. 1.) Tourism Coordination
2.) Tourism Policy Setting 3.) Tourism Legislation and Regulation 4.) Tourism infrastructure development - (transportation facilities, other essential services) 5.) Tourism Operations – many govs involved through ownership and operations of certain attractions etc. 6.) Tourism Development Stimulation and Control
7.) Tourism Marketing and Research 8.) Tourism Training and Education
Constraints – External constraints are those outside the direction control of destination, internal constraints can be influenced by the tourism policy.
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – the only official organization that represents governmental interests on a worldwide basis. Agency of United Nations and the leading international organization in the field of tourism.
International Civil Aviation Organization – made up of representatives from the governments of approximately 190 contracting states. The principle task is to promote worldwide civil aviation. Established objectives: Safety, Security, Environmental Protection, Efficiency, Continuity, and Rule of Law.
World Travel and Tourism Council – provides a forum for business leaders in the travel and tourism industry.
National Tourism Organizations – the tourism policy of a country is developed and implemented by its national tourism administration and/or its national tourist office. Official national bodies that is responsible for the development and marketing of tourism in specific countries. Can be: Part of the civil service system as an independent ministry. Second, can be a governmental agency. Third, can be quasi-public government-funded commission, board, or authority. Lastly it can be a private association indirectly supported by government funding.
Government role in controlling tourism – one of governments roles in tourism is setting and enforcing various forms of legislation and regulations.
Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements – in addition to legislation and regulations, there are certain agreements that have been reached among foreign countries which have a direct impact on tourism. Multilateral agreements meaning that several countries have signed and agreed to abide by the codes of conduct in the agreements. Bilateral is just between 2 countries.
Reasons for destination area legislation and regulations – Laws and regulations allow governments to implement tourism policies and plans, to fulfill government roles in tourism, and to control the impacts of tourism. Specifically for: controlling the entry of foreign visitors and goods. Controlling quality of visitor experience. Ensuring travel Safety. Establishing tourism organizations. Gaming Control. Maintaining building standards. Maintaining operating standards. Protecting the traveler. Protecting the environment and culture. Raising funds for tourism.
Forms of destination area legislation and regulations – Certain forms of legislation that are encountered in most destination areas: * Accommodation standards * Alcohol sales laws * Civil aviation regulations * Environmental protection and conservation regulations * Health regulations * Innkeeper liability laws * Retail travel agency, tour wholesaler, and operation regulations * Regulations on safety in activity participation * Timesharing laws and regulations
Self=Regulation in tourism – A governments main control over individual tourism business operators is through mandatory licensing or registration, which may or may not be supported by a system of regular inspects or reviews. The alternative to this is self-regulation, or business regulating themselves. This can be done through private sector associations or specifically created organizations. Trend towards more self regulation going down.
Tourism System Models: Part 1 : Destination – Planning developing and controlling tourism. Every destination area that chooses to encourage tourism must be prepared to handle the inflows of visitors, and to deal with the challenge that tourism has the potential of generating both positive and negative impacts. (links between 1 and 2 is the tourism product… change in destination could change in marketing) Part 2: Marketing – Strategy, Planning, Promotion, and Distribution (The links between part 2 and 3 is the promotion of travel…change in marketing approach could change the market demand.) Part 3: Demand – The factors influencing the market
(the link between part 3 and 4 is the Travel Purchase. Demand and travel may both influence the other part). Part 4: Travel – the characteristics of travel. A description and analysis of major travel segments. (the link between 4 and 1 is the Shape of travel. Combination of who is traveling, and where, when and how they are traveling).
Model goes beyond a mere description of tourism and its basic principles. A system used to understand the different aspects of tourism and how they relate.
Sustainable Tourism Development: The key to achieving an acceptable balance between the positive and negative impacts of tourism seems to be in adopting the principles of sustainable tourism development. The main principles are 1. Ecological sustainability: ensures that tourism development is compatible with the maintenance of essential ecological process and biology.
2. Social and cultural sustainability: ensures that tourism development increases people’s control over their lives, is compatible with the culture and values of people affected by it, and maintains and strengths community identity. 3. Economic Sustainability: ensures that tourism development is economically efficient and that resources are managed so that they support future generates The objects of sustainable tourism are to improve the quality of life of the host community, provide a high quality experience for the visitor, and maintain the quality of the environment.