Lead Poisoing

Importance of preventing childhood lead poisoning: * Lead is highly toxic, especially to younger children. It can harm children’s brain, kidney, bone marrow and other body systems. * High levels of lead in the blood can cause coma, convulsions and death in children. * Exposure to lead, even at relatively low levels, has been found to be associated with decreased hearing, lower intelligence, hyperactivity, attention deficits, and developmental problems that may make learning harder. Importance of preventing childhood lead poisoning:

* Lead is highly toxic, especially to younger children. It can harm children’s brain, kidney, bone marrow and other body systems. * High levels of lead in the blood can cause coma, convulsions and death in children. * Exposure to lead, even at relatively low levels, has been found to be associated with decreased hearing, lower intelligence, hyperactivity, attention deficits, and developmental problems that may make learning harder. CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONING CHILDHOOD LEAD POISONING Resources Available * Northern Regional CLPP Coalition Coordinating Agency: Northern NJ MCH Consortium.

Contact: 201-843-7400 Service Areas: Bergen, Passaic, Union, Essex (excluding City of Newark), Hudson, Sussex, Warren, and Morris * Newark Partnership for Lead-Safe Children Coordinating Agency: Newark Department of Child and Family Well Being Contact: 973-622-0913 Service Area: City of Newark * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Contact: (770) 488-7330 www. cdc. gov/nceh/lead/lead. htm * United Parents Against Lead (UPAL) www. upal. org – UPAL is an organization comprised of parents of lead poisoned kids that provides information and referrals to families on the local, state, and national level.

* Environmental Protection Agency: www. epa. gov/lead * Resources Available * Northern Regional CLPP Coalition Coordinating Agency: Northern NJ MCH Consortium Contact: 201-843-7400 Service Areas: Bergen, Passaic, Union, Essex (excluding City of Newark), Hudson, Sussex, Warren, and Morris * Newark Partnership for Lead-Safe Children Coordinating Agency: Newark Department of Child and Family Well Being Contact: 973-622-0913 Service Area: City of Newark.

* Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch Contact: (770) 488-7330 www. cdc. gov/nceh/lead/lead. htm * United Parents Against Lead (UPAL) www. upal. org – UPAL is an organization comprised of parents of lead poisoned kids that provides information and referrals to families on the local, state, and national level. * Environmental Protection Agency: www. epa. gov/lead * References Cohen, S. (2001). Lead poisoning: a summary of treatment and prevention. Pediatric Nursing, 27(2), 125. Kassa, H. , Bisesi, M. , Khuder, S. , & Park, P. (2000).

Assessment of a lead management program for inner-city children. Journal of Environmental Health, 62(10), 15-20. Levin, R. , Brown, M. , Kashtock, M. , Jacobs, D. , Whelan, E. , Rodman, J. , & Sinks, T. (2008). Lead exposures in U. S. children, 2008: implications for prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(10), 1285-1293. Yoder, P. , Burright, R. , & Donovick, P. (1993). Lead still poisoning our children. Rn, 56(2), 28-33. References Cohen, S. (2001). Lead poisoning: a summary of treatment and prevention. Pediatric Nursing, 27(2), 125. Kassa, H. , Bisesi, M. , Khuder, S.

, & Park, P. (2000). Assessment of a lead management program for inner-city children. Journal of Environmental Health, 62(10), 15-20. Levin, R. , Brown, M. , Kashtock, M. , Jacobs, D. , Whelan, E. , Rodman, J. , & Sinks, T. (2008). Lead exposures in U. S. children, 2008: implications for prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(10), 1285-1293. Yoder, P. , Burright, R. , & Donovick, P. (1993). Lead still poisoning our children. Rn, 56(2), 28-33. What is lead poisoning? Lead is a metal that is very toxic to humans and exposure can result in serious neurological and hematologic effect.

Children are especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead. Blood lead levels (BLLs) as low as 10 mcg/dl can affects children’s ability to learn, while higher levels (70 mcg/dl) can cause serious health problems such as anemia, neurological disorders, coma and death (Kassa, Bisesi, Khuder, & Park, 2000). The devastating effects of lead Poisoning are preventable. As a primary prevention, Centers for disease control and prevention recommend that all lead sources in children’s environments should be controlled or eliminated before children are exposed.

We need your help to achieve this goal. What is lead poisoning? Lead is a metal that is very toxic to humans and exposure can result in serious neurological and hematologic effect. Children are especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead. Blood lead levels (BLLs) as low as 10 mcg/dl can affects children’s ability to learn, while higher levels (70 mcg/dl) can cause serious health problems such as anemia, neurological disorders, coma and death (Kassa, Bisesi, Khuder, & Park, 2000). The devastating effects of lead Poisoning are preventable.

As a primary prevention, Centers for disease control and prevention recommend that all lead sources in children’s environments should be controlled or eliminated before children are exposed. We need your help to achieve this goal. Your child is at risk for lead poisoning if your child: 1. Live in, regularly visit, or has he or she lived in a house with peeling or chipping paint built before 1960 (This includes daycare centers, preschools, homes of baby-sitters, or relatives). 2. Have a brother or sister, housemate, or playmate being followed or treated for lead poisoning (Blood level greater than or equal to 15 mcg/dl).

3. Live with an adult whose job or hobby involves exposure to lead (ceramics, furniture refinishing, and stained glass work). 4. Live near an active smelter, battery recycling plant, or other industry likely to release lead. (Cohen, 2001) Treatment for lead poisoning: Treatment begins with the identification of elevated blood lead levels and efforts to reduce further exposure. 1. Levels above 15 mcg/dl warrant changes in the child’s environment. 2. Levels above 20 indicate the need for medical treatment, environmental lead abatement, and close follow-up.

3. Alternate housing or hospitalization and treatment are appropriate for the child with a level above 45. 4. Chelation therapy is recommended for blood lead levels > 55 mcg/dl. Chelation medication can bind to lead and can excrete the lead out of the body through urine. (Yoder, Burright, & Donovick, 1993). Your child is at risk for lead poisoning if your child: 5. Live in, regularly visit, or has he or she lived in a house with peeling or chipping paint built before 1960 (This includes daycare centers, preschools, homes of baby-sitters, or relatives).

6. Have a brother or sister, housemate, or playmate being followed or treated for lead poisoning (Blood level greater than or equal to 15 mcg/dl). 7. Live with an adult whose job or hobby involves exposure to lead (ceramics, furniture refinishing, and stained glass work). 8. Live near an active smelter, battery recycling plant, or other industry likely to release lead. (Cohen, 2001) Treatment for lead poisoning: Treatment begins with the identification of elevated blood lead levels and efforts to reduce further exposure. 5. Levels above 15 mcg/dl warrant changes in the child’s environment.

6. Levels above 20 indicate the need for medical treatment, environmental lead abatement, and close follow-up. 7. Alternate housing or hospitalization and treatment are appropriate for the child with a level above 45. 8. Chelation therapy is recommended for blood lead levels > 55 mcg/dl. Chelation medication can bind to lead and can excrete the lead out of the body through urine. (Yoder, Burright, & Donovick, 1993). How to prevent lead poisoning? 1. Ask your health care provider to test your children for lead if you suspect exposure. Follow-up care is essential. 2. Use caution when purchasing a home built before 1978.

3. Watch out for lead dust when doing home improvement. Protect furniture from lead dust and wet mop the work area after projects with a detergent. 4. Eat a healthy diet rich in iron and calcium (dairy products); this helps the body to absorb less lead (Cohen, 2001) How to prevent lead poisoning? 5. Ask your health care provider to test your children for lead if you suspect exposure. Follow-up care is essential. 6. Use caution when purchasing a home built before 1978. 7. Watch out for lead dust when doing home improvement. Protect furniture from lead dust and wet mop the work area after projects with a detergent.

8. Eat a healthy diet rich in iron and calcium (dairy products); this helps the body to absorb less lead (Cohen, 2001) Sources of lead exposure: Lead in the environment Air: Industrial emissions, demolition of old buildings, leaded gasoline and propeller aircraft using aviation gasoline. Soil: Peeling lead paint on residence contaminate the soil, lead rich soil from play area and produce grown in lead contaminated soil. Dust: Composed of fine particles of soil, paint, automobile and industrial emissions. Ingesting dust particle is the typical route of lead exposure for children.

(Levin, Brown, Kashtock, Jacobs, Whelan, Rodman, & Sinks, 2008). Lead in the diet Breast milk: Lead in breast milk is related to current maternal exposure and past exposures cause lead to store in bones. Drinking water: Lead is unlikely to found in water but tap water gets contaminated from corrosion of plumping materials containing lead. Chocolate: Lead levels in chocolate products exceed those in other foods. Candy: Candy imported from Mexico, Philippines and other Asian countries are found with high lead levels. Both candy and the wrappers printed with lead ink have been cited.

Vinyl lunch boxes: Researches shows that lead in soft vinyl lunchboxes may transfer to foods. Glasses and dishes: Leaded crystal contains 24–32% lead oxide. Crystal decanters and glasses can release high amounts of lead in a short time, especially with cola. (Levin et al, 2008) Sources of lead exposure: Lead in the environment Air: Industrial emissions, demolition of old buildings, leaded gasoline and propeller aircraft using aviation gasoline. Soil: Peeling lead paint on residence contaminate the soil, lead rich soil from play area and produce grown in lead contaminated soil.

Dust: Composed of fine particles of soil, paint, automobile and industrial emissions. Ingesting dust particle is the typical route of lead exposure for children. (Levin, Brown, Kashtock, Jacobs, Whelan, Rodman, & Sinks, 2008). Lead in the diet Breast milk: Lead in breast milk is related to current maternal exposure and past exposures cause lead to store in bones. Drinking water: Lead is unlikely to found in water but tap water gets contaminated from corrosion of plumping materials containing lead. Chocolate: Lead levels in chocolate products exceed those in other foods.

Candy: Candy imported from Mexico, Philippines and other Asian countries are found with high lead levels. Both candy and the wrappers printed with lead ink have been cited. Vinyl lunch boxes: Researches shows that lead in soft vinyl lunchboxes may transfer to foods. Glasses and dishes: Leaded crystal contains 24–32% lead oxide. Crystal decanters and glasses can release high amounts of lead in a short time, especially with cola. (Levin et al, 2008) Eliminating childhood lead poisoning Eliminating childhood lead poisoning Prevent lead poisoning and protect your family today: * Encourage children to play in sand and grass instead of dirt.

* Do not store food in open metal cans, decorative pottery, or lead crystal. * Test your water supply for lead. * Do not remove lead-based paint yourself. * Wash children’s hands and pacifiers before naps and bedtime. (Cohen, 2001) Prevent lead poisoning and protect your family today: * Encourage children to play in sand and grass instead of dirt. * Do not store food in open metal cans, decorative pottery, or lead crystal. * Test your water supply for lead. * Do not remove lead-based paint yourself. * Wash children’s hands and pacifiers before naps and bedtime. (Cohen, 2001)