Law and Government

Texas is the 28th state in the United States (Patterson, 1940). The Texas constitution is the main basis of all the major undertakings in the state together with its local governments. The law serves as the basis for all the actions of Texas and its possible consequences For example, it dictates for the distribution of authority’s powers and rights.

According to Wells (1939), the following composed the executive branch of the State of Texas: (1) Governor; (2) Lieutenant Governor; (3) Comptroller of Public Accounts; (4) Land Commissioner; (5) Attorney Genera; (6) Agriculture Commissioner; (7) the three-member Texas Railroad Commission (8) the State Board of Education, and (9) Secretary of State. The Governor, as the head of the state, is also the chief of the state armed forces. He has the sole power and right to command the military to undertake certain actions.

Moreover, he has the supremacy to reject all the bills sand other proposed law even it is already approved by the Legislature. This power can be applied anytime as frequent as the governor desired. He can also appoint officials such as executive boards and judicial officials. Hence, the governor takes all the influence and commands by the state. The Lieutenant Governor serve as the second-in-command of the Governor (Patterson et. al. , 1940). For example, in the absence of the governor, he would take over all the negotiations and actions of the state.

Like the governor, he could also exercise the above-mentioned powers. The comptroller is the one who is accountable in the financial aspects of the state (Zink, 1939). He decides if the income state and the proposed state budget are still in sense of balance. The Land Commissioner serve as the “title company and property manger and its first function is “to superintend, execute, and perform all acts touching or respecting the public lands of Texas (http://www. valindahathcox. com/issues. html).

The Attorney General serves its people by: “representing the state and its agencies in all litigation, providing legal advice and counsel to state officials and defending the laws and the Constitution of the State of Texas” (http://www. oag. state. tx. us/agency/jobs_interns. shtml). The Agriculture Commissioner is the head of the Department of Agriculture. Also, it is the Agriculture Commissioner’s duty to environmental safeguard. All of the above-mentioned state officials are elected by the people under jurisdiction. The secretary of the state, however, is appointed by the state governor.

Among all the three branches of the Texas State Government, Legislative system has the most rule of supremacy. It has the power to dictates and direct all the negotiations and business truncations of the state. The legislature has a regular session once every two years. Like any other states, it is a bicameral institution, meaning consisting of two houses, namely the “lower and upper house. ” The House of Representatives is lead by its head known as “speaker of the house. ” The lieutenant governor, however, is the head of the state senate.

The governor has the sole power to call a special session as he desires. The sets of the qualifications in the house are dictated by the Texas constitution (Kemp, 1999). In judicial system, the state is operated by five different courts, namely: (1) Municipal and Justice of the Peace Courts; (2) County Courts; (3) District Courts (4) Texas Courts of Appeals, and (5) Texas Court of Criminal Appeals and Texas Supreme Court. Texas has two courts, the Texas Supreme Court and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. The Texas Supreme Court is the one who is responsible in civil cases.

When an appeal is being filed, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals will be responsible for its hearing Municipal and Justice of the Peace Courts only deal with the minor claims of cases. The county court can rule over the “justice of peace court and municipal court cases. ” Cases such as those who involve prison time will be presided by this court (Davidson, 1990). The district court, however, exclusively works for on lawbreaking cases such as rape, divorce cases, and election misdemeanor cases. The county courts and the district court merged for the civil cases.