Travel in the early nineteenth century was so much slower and more difficult than it is today that it is not easy to remember that it was also a time of significant change and improvement. In New England in 1790, vehicles were few, roads were generally rutted and rudimentary, and traveling any distance was both slow and difficult. Children and poorer adults walked everywhere, and only a minority of farmers had horses and wagons.
Many loads of freight were drawn not by horses but by much slower- moving oxen. With a good horse, it took from four to six days, depending on the weather, to travel from Boston to New York. And this was on the best roads, which ran between major cities along the coast. Inland, the roads were even worse, turning to impassable mud when it rained or to choking dust when the weather was dry.e early 19But beginning around 1790, a series of changes was beginning that historians have called “The Transportation Revolution.”
Americans—and New Englanders in particular—rebuilt and vastly extended their roads. More than 3,700 miles of turnpikes, or toll roads, were built in New England between 1790 and 1820. Continuing through the 1840s, many thousands of miles of improved county and town roads were constructed as well. The new roads were far better constructed and maintained, and allowed for much faster travel. In response, the number of vehicles on the roads increased rapidly, far faster than population. It was noted in 1830 that Americans were driving a “multitudinous generation of travelling vehicles” that had been “totally unknown” in the 1790s.
Stagecoach lines had spread across the Northeastern states, using continual relays, or “stages,” of fresh horses spaced out every 40 miles or so. They made travel, if not enjoyable, at least faster, less expensive, and less perilous than it had ever been. The 1830s had reduced the travel time between Boston and New York to a day and a half. Good roads and stages extended across southern New England, the lower Hudson Valley in New York, and southeastern Pennsylvania.
The most radical changes in the speed, scale and experience of traveling came with the application of newly emerging transportation technologies—the railroad, the steamboat, and the building of canals— to American conditions. Beginning with Robert Fulton’s Clermont, which successfully made the journey up the Hudson from New York City to Albany in 1807, Americans developed steamboats to ply both the deeper eastern rivers and the shallower western ones. Although steamboats were sometimes dangerously prone to fires and boiler explosions, they traveled faster, met tighter schedules and could travel against the river current far more effectively than rafts and barges.
Steamboats vastly expanded passenger travel on the rivers and carried much higher value cargo upstream. Americans turned as well to the massive infrastructure project of canal building, as the British had done decades earlier. Canals promised far less expensive transportation of farm produce, manufactured goods and passengers, but it was often difficult for them to return profits to their investors.
The Erie Canal, traversing the breadth of New York State to connect Albany and Buffalo in 1825, was the great success among American canals. It opened up an enormous agricultural hinterland for trade with New York City and New England. In New England, New York and Pennsylvania, Americans created a vast system of inland waterways that significantly reduced transportation costs, although none of them matched the success of the Erie. The first buses were not exactly what we picture to be buses STEAM BUSES[EDIT]
Amédée Bollée’s L’Obéissante(1875) Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates ofSir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation. The first ‘mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on April 22, 1833. Steam carriages were much less likely to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, and caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres.
However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles altogether from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on “road locomotives” of 5 mph in towns and cities, and 10 mph in the country. TROLLEYBUSES[EDIT] World’s first trolleybus, Berlin 1882 In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus, typically fed through trolley poles by overhead wires.
The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an “…arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus…would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, and two wires hanging from these suspenders; allowing contact-rollers to run on these two wires, the current could be conveyed to the tram-car, and back again to the dynamo machine at the station, without the necessity of running upon rails at all.”
The first such vehicle, the Electromote, was made by his brother Dr. Ernst Werner von Siemens and presented to the public in 1882 inHalensee, Germany. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened the world’s first passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 near Dresden, in Germany.
Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used.Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911. MOTOR BUSES[EDIT] The first internal combustion omnibus of 1895 (Siegen to Netphen) In Siegerland, Germany, two passenger bus lines ran briefly, but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six- passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria.
Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler also produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company for use on the streets of London. The vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 kph and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air platform above. With the success and popularity of this bus, Daimler expanded production, selling more buses to companies in London and, in 1899, to Stockholm and Speyer.
Daimler also entered into a partnership with the British company Milnes and developed a new double-decker in 1902 that became the market standard. Early LGOC B-type The first mass-produced bus model was the B-type double-decker bus, designed by Frank Searleand operated by the London General Omnibus Company – it entered service in 1910, and almost 3,000 had been built by the end of the decade. Hundreds saw military service on the Western Front during the First World War. The Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company, which rapidly became a major manufacturer of buses in the US, was founded in Chicago in 1923 by John D. Hertz.
General Motors purchased a majority stake in 1925 and changed its name to the Yellow Truck and Coach Manufacturing Company. They then purchased the balance of the shares in 1943 to form the GM Truck and Coach Division. Models expanded in the 20th century, leading to the widespread introduction of the contemporary recognizable form of full-sized buses from the 1950s. The Routemaster, developed in the 1950s, was a pioneering design and remains an icon of London to this day. The innovative design used lightweight aluminium and techniques developed in aircraft production during World War II.
As well as a novel weight-saving integral design, it also introduced for the first time on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a fully automatic gearbox, and power-hydraulic braking. View as multi-pages TOPICS IN THIS DOCUMENT Articulated bus, Bus, Bus rapid transit, New York, New York City, Road, Tram, Trolleybus RELATED DOCUMENTS HISTORY …Name: Date: Graded Assignment Final Exam Part 2 I. Map On this world map, indicate the following features:
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