Iraq is officially called as the Republic of Iraq is a country in southwestern Asia. It is bounded by Turkey, Iran, the Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria. Iraq has an area of 167,925 square miles (434,924 km2). The greatest length (north-south) is about 540 miles (870 km); greatest width, 490 miles (790 km). Deserts, river plains, and high mountains are Iraq’s chief landforms. The desert, a part of the Syrian Desert, is a sand-and-gravel-covered plateau in the west and southwest. To the east it descends to the largely alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Below Baghdad the plain is broad, barely above sea level, and often marshy. Above Baghdad the two streams occupy individual basins and are streams occupy individual basins and are separated by a desert like upland called Al Jazira. Northeastern Iraq, part of the region known as Kurdistan, is crosses by plateaus and mountains that are part of the high Zagros system lying mainly in Iraq (see Helms, Christine. Iraq: Eastern Flank of the Arab World (Brooking Institution, 2000). Peaks rise 10,000 to 11,800 feet (3,000 to 3,600 m), but most are considerably lower. This paper scrutinizes the government of the Republic of Iraq.
Mesopotamia, as Iraq was formerly called, was one of the earliest seats of culture. The Semites who moved there about 3,500 B. C. encountered the high civilization of the Sumerians, who lived in town and villages, cultivated the land and possessed a highly developed law, religion, and cuneiform writings. Those Semites who settled in southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonians, after the capital, Babylonia; those in the north were Assyrians with Nineveh as their capital. The Assyrian empire was followed in the area by the empires of Persia (Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanids) and intermittently, of Rome (see Helms, Christine.
Iraq: Eastern Flank of the Arab World (Brooking Institution, 2000). After the Islamic conquest, Iraq was the center of the Abbasid caliphate, the longest-lived of the Muslim caliphates. It enjoyed a golden age under Harun al-Rashid and his son al-Mamun. Under these two rulers, Baghdad was the center of a brilliant literary and artistic civilization. One of its outstanding features was the translations mainly from Greek, of major works in philosophy, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and geography. But after the 9th century, the caliphate began to disintegrate.
With the capture of Baghdad in 1258 by the Mongol Hulagu and the attendant destruction of the canals in Mesopotamia; the country entered a period of decline that extended into the centuries of Ottoman rule. These were characterized by wars with Iran, raids from the tribal tributes, and the sway of quasi-independent local chiefdoms. The enlightened governship (1869-1872) of Midhat ushered in some decades of improved but still corrupt administration. By 1914, some Iraqi especially army officers, had been imbued was the spirit of Arabism and with Western nationalistic ideology (see Marr, Phebe. The Modern History of Iraq (West-view Press, 2002).