In Iraq the people are mainly displaced due to terrorism,, violence, insecurity and insurgency . The frictions of sectarian people also lead to the vast displacement occurs in Iraq. The studies show that the reason for such alarming rate of the displacement occurred due to the ethnic and religious breakdown, internal restrictions and Sectarian violence. UNCHR report shows around 60,000 Iraqis being displaced per month. As per the report of November 2007, 4.5 million have already left the houses and another 2. 5 million are internally displaced.
( Jennifer Pagonis,2007)(11)The majority of Iraqi religious population has been migrated includes the Shias -63% and Sunni-32%. In 2007,the governorates started to put a ceiling on the internally displaced people . According to the authorities the increasing number of such people causes the security problems to the provinces. Moreover the displaced people are always suspected of teaming up with rebels. (Kristelie,2007)(12)
From the above discussion it can be seen that the Iraqi refugees are mainly comprised of Internally displaced refugees which are out of the purview of the Refugee Convention 1951 as the one of the criteria of the convention is that those persons are internally displaced shall not come under the convention,on the other hand it is up to the UNCHR to look after the interest of such refugees. Moreover Convention is specific in it terms of individual problems . As mentioned above the convention does not entertain the identity of the agent who compel the people to be displaced.
Problems which are arised of individual basis and political reform basis shall never be a part of the convention. Apart from this, 1951 Refugee Convention clarifies that a refugee status can be concluded when the circumstances that caused a person to be a refugee have ceased to exist. The sources of threat may continue, but it cannot be good ground for the argument for the refugee status. (Human right watch, 2007). (13)Under such circumstances the Iraq may not be able to enjoy the status of refugee under the Refugee Convention 1951.
Conclusion The recent years there has been a immense increase in refugee flows. The flee of refugees has been changed in the sense of ethnic, communal and civil conflicts and violence. The stydies show that the number of internally displaced people have been mounted from 10 million (1985) to 35 million at present. But the critics argue that the Refugee convention 1951 has failed in taking any comprehensive and flexible response to the complexity of such forced population movement.
Another criticism is that it does not extend any assistance to the refugees until the states take some measure s in the form of ratification. The Convention does not ensure any assistance to internally displaced people who constitute the large amount of refugee population through out the world. The system undertaken by the Refugee convention for preventing mass outflows is not effective. But the role of Convention 1951 and its protocol of 1967 in today’s blood shedding world is ahead of lexis even though, it functions through a restricted sphere.
“Our department's immigration operation as "not fit for purpose" with "inadequate" leadership and management systems, other failings showed the system could be "dysfunctional" and "wholesale transformation" was "probably" needed. Moreover it's inadequate in terms of its scope, it's inadequate in terms of its information technology, leadership, management systems and processes,. ” –John Reid (1)(BBC News,2006) The immigration officers of UK enjoys the power of arrest, search and seize and also they can exercise some sort of force .
Even though they are the civilian body ,they are crucial part in immigration and nationality and directly related to the Home Secretary/(2)(Immigration and Asylum Act,1999). Moreover the Sec,3(2) empowers the secretary of the state to exercise some prerogative power on behalf of the sovereign with regard to those persons who enters and leaves UK. (3)(clayton,)It can be seen that from these provisions UK exercise due diligence in the official level in the case of immigrants whether it is refugees or it is of other category.
But the issues arise the credibility of working of the proper immigration system in monitoring the mass migration, UK. The critics warn the government that immigration may lead to the political break up of Britain. The critics further goes that the country may reach to an edge beyond which it could no longer be considered as a single United Nations. (4)(The Star,2007) Even though the Home Office refused this statement apparently by emphasizing that there is a balanced migration policy being forwarded by the government ,it is still remain as a critical issue.