Chapter 4:1) Who is Karl Marx? He is the one most responsible for the development of Marxism -Marxism: a type of conflict theory that uses class conflict (Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie) -Delinquency is a normal response to social conditions of capitalism
-fewer jobs for the young-youths behavior is more controlled by agents of socialization –Example: The school teaches capitalist values and the juvenile justice system which creates delinquency 2) What is social disorganization theory? What are the causes of crime according to the theory and what are some shortcomings of the theory?
-It has to do with the concentric zone theory-There are five zones which start in the central city and move outward1. Central business district (the loop)2. Zone in transition3. Zone of workingmen’s homes4. Residential zone5. Commuter’s Zone-This showed: There were the highest rates of crime and delinquency in zones near the center of the city -Causes: areas were characterized by poverty, dilapidated buildings, etc. -Shortcomings: Delinquency was socially learned—not related to any one racial or ethnic group 3) What is the routine activities theory?
-Assumed that there will always be a sufficient number of people who commit crimes -Criminologists should focus on the situational circumstances that enable people to act on tendencies
-Focuses on places that are associated with increase of crime -The probability of crime increase when there was a convergence in physical space and time of three basic elements: motivated offenders, availability of suitable targets, and absence of capable guardians. -Weakness of theory? Female victimization by acquaintances and it is unable to fully account for the victimization of women **Social disorganization and Routine Activities Theory both use ecological viewpoint**
4) What is anomie-strain theory? How are goals and means important? What are the modes of adaptation? -A disjuncture between “cultural goals” and “institutionalized means” -Greatest pressures for criminal behavior reside in the lower classes and among disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority groups Why is means and goals important? People who lacked access to legitimate means to turn success into reality were structures into a relationship of strain within society and experienced a sense of frustration, anger, and injustice about their lot in life. -Notion of relative deprivation
Modes of Adaptation:1) Conformity (Most common)2) Ritualism (Rejects goals, accepts means)3) Innovation (Rejects means, accepts goals)4) Retreatism (Rejects both)5) Rebelling (Rejects both and substitutes new goals and means) Modes of AdaptationGoalsMeansConformityAcceptsAcceptsRitualismRejectsAcceptsInnovationAcceptsRejectsRetreatismRejectsRejectsRebellingRejectsRejects
5) What is differential association theory? Why is classified as both a symbolic interactionist theory and a behaviorist theory? -Criminal behavior is learned in the presence of primary groups -Primary: strong emotional attachment
-Secondary: people you use to accomplish certain goals -Person becomes delinquent when exposed to “an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law” -Not all associations are equally important
-Vary by: Frequency, duration, priority and intensity—Frequency: How often—Duration: How long—-Priority: What age (the younger the child, the more influence) —-Intensity: How much you value the association-Why classified as both?6) What are the five techniques of neutralization? What are some examples of each? -These are learned prior to the delinquency according to the theory 1) Denial of Responsibility: Refuse to accept personal blame (drunk, “fooling around”) Example: If you punch a hole in the wall due to being intoxicated, and you fail to understand that you caused the damage 2) Denial of Injury: “Nobody really got hurt”
Example: If you get into a fist fight with some people, and some of the people get injured, but you argue that it was just a play argument and it was no big deal. 3) Denial of Victim: The person deserved the injury (or at least understandable target) Example: If a man rapes a women, and says that it is because she is a female, or if she deserved it because she is soliciting sex.
4) Condemnation: Authority figures are hypocrites, deviants, etc. Example: If one believes that an officer is doing something that they were punished for such as if the office is driving under the influence, but has arrested someone for that same reason 5) Appeal to higher loyalties: Places put more emphasis on groups or gangs that where within loyalty to society in general Example: If someone lets a criminal off of the hook because they have higher appeal in the system 7) What is labeling theory? What is meant by primary and secondary deviance? -Looks at crime and relates it to primary and secondary deviance—it labels a person or crime based on different levels of deviance
Primary: casually engages in illegal behavior, but has never been caught; do not seem themselves as a criminalSecondary: the reaction from society after the illegal activity has been detected -People who get caught doing a crime are labeled as secondary and this sticks with them for awhile 8) What is social control theory? How is it different from other theories that we discussed? Questions why don’t people engage in criminal behavior
4 components of the social bond:1) Attachment (parents/school/peers)2) Commitment (to conventional lifestyle)3) Involvement (to conventional sports, working, etc.)4) Belief (in the legitimacy of the criminal system)Different? It helps to explain minor delinquency, the onset (rather than continuation) of delinquency, and delinquency in early (rather then late) adolescence -Not what causes people to commit a crime, but rather looks at why people do not commit a crime
Theory NameSociologist?Year(s)Social disorganization theoryShaw and Mckay1920-1940Routine activities theoryCohen and FelsonLate 1970sAnomie/Strain theoryMerton1930s and laterDifferential Association theorySutherland1939-1947Labeling theoryBecker and others1960s and laterSocial control theoryHirschi1969Delinquency and drift theoryMatza and Sykes
Chapter 5:1) What is conflict theory?-Discusses how different groups have different values and different levels of power -There is a scarcity of desirable things and different groups compete with one another for these scare goods. Those with more scare goods are able to control society’s institutions -What benefits one group may not benefit another
-Focuses on rule-makers rather then the rule-breakers-Concerned with understanding how the law is used by the powerful to control society and uncovering injustice in society
2) What is critical criminology? (Importance of inequality and its role in the criminalization process) -It emphasizes how social structures of inequality affect the criminalization process in ways that advance the interests of the social elites at the expense of those who are disadvantaged
-Define crime as any violation of human rights or as analogous social injuries 3) What are the various types of conflict?-Culture conflict: When persons acting according to the norms and expectation of their own group violate those of another group that have been enacted into law
-Racial conflict: Example: Rosa Parks refusal to move to the back of the bus -Class conflict: Differences in punishments depending upon whether the crime is more likely to be committed by someone from the lower class or someone from the upper class -Gender conflict (Feminist criminology): a social movement that is concerned with understanding and alleviating the oppressive conditions that females experience as a group.
-Have been active in the gay and lesbian rights movement4) What is left realism? Emphasizes the harmful nature of street crime as well as white-collar crime. -Reject grand utopian schemes and called for realistic solutions to the problems of street crime
5) What is peacemaking criminology? How does it view crime? What is its primary focus? -Encourages us to view crime as a social relationship of power -Need to focus on strategies of negotiation and conflict resolution, redemption and reconciliation and nonviolent resistance to social injustice -Need to focus on the prevention rather then on repression of crime 6) Discuss the 3 types of prevention.
1) Primary prevention: Attempts to stop criminal behavior before it happens-Aimed at the entire community, not just at individuals who are seeking or need rehab services 2) Secondary prevention: Focuses on early identification and treatment of vulnerable or at-risk youths 3) Tertiary prevention: Interventions that protect society from offenders and that reduce the likelihood of repeat crime
Chapter 6:1) Ralph Nader’s 1965 book, Unsafe at Any Speed:-It exposed the structural design defects in GM’s Corvair that cause it to become uncontrollable and to overturn at high speeds -All-too-common corporate misconduct that sacrifices “human well-being for profits” -How to control the power of economic interests which ignore the harmful effects of their applied science and technology 2) What is organized crime?
-Organizations that are set-up explicitly for criminal purposes (examples: gambling, drugs, loan sharking) 3) Explain the significance of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890? What exactly did the Act do? -It was passed in 1890 and it contained both criminal and civil provisions -Business combinations that resulted in restraint of trade or the monopolization of an industry became federal offenses that could be prosecuted as criminal misdemeanors
-Max. Criminal penalties: 1 year in carceration and a $5,000 fine-Crimes in business activities that were previously legitimate 4) Annual loses from white-collar crime are about 50 times greater than losses from ordinary property crimes. 5) Know these terms:-Insidious injuries: Occupational harms experienced by workers that may take years to develop Example: Asbestos exposure-Corporate crime: Crime committed by corporate employees on behalf of the company in which they work -Insider trading: Occurs when stockholders, directors, officers, or any recipients of information not publicly available use this information for their own benefit -Environmental racism:
Environmental hazards that disproporiately affect poor minorities -Sweetheart contracts: An agreement between union leaders and employers that include terms unfavorable to the rank-and-file workers or permits employers to violate collective bargaining agreements in return for payoffs to the corrupt union leadership. -Money laundering: Taking “dirty” money and making it “clean” money -A process whereby money obtained through illegal means Is recycles into the legitimate economy 6) What was the Exxon Valdez incident?
It was an oil tanker that lost 11 million gallons of oil off the coast of Alaska. It had used a reduced crew size, and the ship’s captain was known to have had a drinking problem. It was a crime that could have been prevented in the company would have taken more precautions and followed certain rules