International Trade

Smart grids differ from current electricity infrastructure in the United States because smart grids are more efficient and up-to-date. It is also more ways to handle power by alternative energy sources. Smart grids provides information to both the electric power provider and the consumer so that they may make important decisions about energy consumption and production. Smart grids also detects power outages at an individual home quicker and precisely than the current electricity.

When developing a smart grid, there are management, organization, and technology issues that should be considered. Some of the technology that is required is networks and switches for power management; sensor and monitoring devices to track energy usage and distribution trends; systems to provide energy suppliers and consumers with usage data; communications systems to relay data along the entire energy supply system; and systems linked to programmable appliances to run them when energy is least costly. Xcel is an organization who is able to monitor and remotely adjust thermostats.

The challenges that I think will most likely hamper the development of smart grids are changing the infrastructure of our electricity grids, installing two-way meters to flow both to and from homes at every home or building that uses electric power, and creating an intuitive end-user interface. The dashboards used to manage appliances have been reported by some participates to be confusing and too high-tech.

Another area of our infrastructure that could benefit from “smart” technologies is businesses. Instead of individual households, warehouses, distribution centers, and offices would benefit greatly from this because some of them are not used during the weekend or throughout the nights, so the energy can be shut-down for certain parts excluding alarm systems and other factors related to this.

I would not want my home nor my community to be part of a smart grid because it should be my decision and responsibility as to how I can eliminate some of the cost of electricity. Also, the requirements and implantation of smart grids could be a challenge for many to face.

Procter & Gamble (P&G) business operations are divided into three main units which are Beauty Care, Household Care, and Health and Well-Being. These three are also divided into more specific units. P&G maintain the popularity of it’s existing brands through advertising and marketing. It extend its brand to related products by developing new products under those brands. They also innovate and create new brands entirely from scratch. It is critical that the company facilitates collaboration between researchers, marketers, and managers. P&G also spends 3.5 percent of revenue on innovation.

P&G has been active in implementing information systems that foster effective collaboration and innovation. The social networking and collaborative tools popularized by web 2.0 have been especially attractive to P&G management. Their first order of business practices that were not sufficiently collaborative. The biggest culprit was email. The P&G launched a total overhaul of it’s collaboration systems, led by a suite of Microsoft products.

The service provides unified communications, Microsoft Live Communications Server functionality, Web conferencing with Live Meeting, and content management with SharePoint. Some Collaborative technologies were slow to catch on at P&G because they didn’t always link information from within the company.

An executive from Procter & Gamble would glue the results of experiments into Word documents and passed them out at a conference. Another on would manually enter the data and speech into PowerPoint slides and email the files to their colleagues. Now, P&G IT department has created a Microsoft SharePoint page where executives can post all presentations. This also allows employees and colleagues of other parts these presentations. Another form is Innovation Net, which contains over 5 million research documents in digital format.

TelePresence is a useful collaborative tool for P&G because it is a way to foster collaboration between employees across countries and continents. It also makes it possible to hold high-definition meetings over long distances. P&G benefits of telepresence are significant travel savings, more efficient flow of ideas, and quicker decision making.

The competitive strategy that the credit card company is using is Focus on Market Niche, which is analyzing data of customer’s buying patterns, tastes, and preferences. This information system supports this strategy by producing and analyzing data for finely tuned sales and marketing techniques. The business benefits of analyzing customer purchase data and constructing behavioral profiles was learning which cardholders were the highest risk and which were more likely to pay back the amount they used. This also identified the most reliable credit worthy cardholders. The biggest thing was to get in the heads of their customers.

Law enforcement is not permitted to profile individuals, but it appears that credit card companies are doing just that. They are an invasion of privacy because not all purchases of the cardholders are for the cardholders. It is not a reliable source to determine someone behavior in spending because some people use certain credit cards for certain things, such as one card for groceries and gas, another for bills, and another one for medical expenses.

The moral dimension of information systems that is identified in this case is accountability and control. The benefits of having new information technology such as cellphones and being able to text message and stay knowledgeable of what is going on in the social network, can be dangerous. Texting is easy and very convenient but can be very dangerous behind the wheel of a car. Therefore, the individual that causes any danger to anyone or themselves through texting behind the wheel will suffer the consequences.

The ethical, social, and political issues raised in this case is that texting behind the wheel of a car is causing just as many accidents as an intoxicated driver. The accident rates have increased tremendously due to texting. The ethical principle that would be good for dicsion making toward texting while driving would be Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative because it is not right for certain individuals to take certain actions, such as texting while driving, if others are not allowed. As a whole, it affect the lives of people on the road and can be very dangerous.

References Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2012). Information Systems, Organizations, and Strategy. In K. C. Laudon, & J. P. Laudon, Management Information Systems Managing the Digital Firm 12th Edition (p. 94). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.