Abstract: International trade policy of a government is to maximize national interests, to promote the rapid development of the national economy to achieve the equitable distribution of national income taken by the limit or encourage free trade policies. Since China’s accession to the WTO, the international economic competition has intensified, while trade liberalization, national protectionism is also showing a new form. In the face of the trade protectionism attack countries for Chinese enterprises, China must develop a correct and effective international trade policy, in order to maintain the development of Chinese enterprises, industries, economy. Keywords: China; international trade; policy
1.0 China faces the competitive environment of international trade 1.1 International market and its institutional environment is quite grim. With China’s accession to the WTO, China will be faced with the challenge of all-round, multi-level, the first is the establishment of an open economy. Unlike Asia’s “Four Little Dragons” can not be a one-way directly to the international market forward, can only enter the gradual opening up of the domestic market, while the broad international market. The same time, China had fully accepted the WTO and developed a series of international trade regimes, guidelines, although these systems, not entirely reasonable guidelines for developing countries like China. 1.2 Trade protectionism is showing a new form. Today’s international economy, while continuously advancing wave of trade liberalization, trade protectionism emerged in various new face.
Between the start of the competition between the countries with the enterprise, competition between industries combined, so that the pattern of international competition becomes intensified. Emerging trade protectionism is often the name of the protection of the living environment and human health, protect the global common interests banner, take advantage of the economic gap between the developing countries with the developed countries on the development of China plus a disguised form of trade protection policy. For these new protection policy, which most applicable is “technical barriers” and “green barriers” green barriers in developed countries the heavy impact of China’s merchandise exports largely affect China’s domestic export enterprises, the impact no less than the impact of the anti-dumping cases. 1.3 The trend of the new economy presents new opportunities and challenges.
The development of information technology so that the world economy showing a new trend, which has brought new opportunities for China’s economic development, but also brought new challenges. The new opportunities mainly in the developed countries, state-of-the-art technology, equipment flows provide the technology and back-up resources for the establishment of modern enterprise. New economic operation and management mechanisms through the establishment and development of the network industry, established Chinese companies can take advantage of information technology to the development of information-intensive industries, or the development of the information on a capital-intensive products and information a labor intensive type “products, in order to develop a new market demands.
We can also make use of the mechanism of the international division of labor, the development of new export-oriented industries, participation in international and regional division of labor, and thus the formation of a new economic growth point. But once China did not seize this opportunity, it will make the Chinese economy in a very unfavorable situation in the new international division of labor system. 1.4 State intervention with the simultaneous development of a free trade. In the context of economic globalization, trade liberalization continued rapid development of the world showing the formulation of international trade policy liberalization trend of development, the adjustable limit free trade policy at this time has become the mainstream.
But at the same time, the major countries of the world (especially American and European countries), the government increasingly involved in international trade, either public or secret protectionist trade policies, so as to achieve the purpose of support and protect domestic enterprises . Game of governments around the world in international trade has become an important component part of modern international relations. 1.5 The competitive structure of the foreign trade enterprises to undergo significant changes. The 21st century, the prevalence of the trend of international mergers and acquisitions, the formation of the new oligarchic economy “, many industries are beginning to not perfectly competitive market, the global strategic vision of the national large-scale enterprise highlights. But now, the relationship of the Chinese enterprises and foreign multinational companies are still in the competition for the cooperation of the Chinese market stage. Multinationals continue in China large-scale, systematic investment,
China has become a part of their global strategic thinking, the domestic market with the international market closely combine to make domestic and international competition and international competition in the domestic “synchronous development, thus contributing to China’s economy more quickly integrated into the development process of economic globalization, China’s foreign trade enterprises are facing extremely harsh environment of international competition. At the same time, the economic interest in a wide range of development and policy coordination capacity defeat also intensified competition in international trade between China’s foreign trade enterprises and regions, domestic enterprises is very difficult to achieve “unanimously”. Moreover, the Chinese industry merging the ongoing restructuring of the trade structure as well as the diversification of the structure of interest, resulting in the combination between Chinese and foreign enterprises and mutual penetration of mutual control, asked, “friend and foe hard to make Chinese and foreign enterprises.
2.0 China’s international trade policy options
2.1 Promote the liberalization of international trade under WTO regime. The China WTO members, China’s trade policy must be based on open WTO free trade system, must be determined by the WTO principles, rules promote the liberalization of international trade. In general, the guidelines developed by the WTO on trade policies and trade practices, norms advocated trade liberalization gradually. Their performance in the following aspects: (I) on the basis of the market economy and open trade system. (2) the establishment and maintenance of a fair trade environment. (3) to take a standardized and transparent trade adjustment policies.
(4) allows the economy outside the WTO trade policy rules the event. In actual trade exchanges, transactions and part of trade policy and WTO principle conflict contrary happens is also inclusive. These policies: the international balance of payments, imports damage defense measures, regional economic integration, infant industry protection, and developing countries policies. Under the rules of the WTO trade policy, China’s trade policy choices embodied in promoting the liberalization of international trade trends and the use of WTO ‘protection measures on the domestic market, industry, enterprise, appropriate the necessary protection.
2.2 Based on the development status of the country’s trade legal system to develop according to their own interests. The economic strength of the different countries is very different, and thus taken on his trade policy is not the same. Either in the past or in the WTO framework, the nature of international trade policy are protective, and more systematic protection under the WTO framework, offensive, legitimacy, and difficult to deal with.
After China’s accession to the WTO, must develop a set of beneficial trade legal system in line with China’s national conditions of China’s interests, to protect their own markets and businesses; Second, the domestic industry in the interests of the industry after China’s accession to the WTO allocation conflict, therefore, must safeguard the interests of various classes and social strata coordinate to promote the stable development of society, must be developed in order to solve this problem, the administrative laws and regulations related measures.
2.3 To build China’s non-tariff barriers to protect the system. WTO advocate trade liberalization process, the use of non-tariff barriers made many prohibitive provisions. But its mode of thinking with rules and norms to eliminate barriers to trade, but at the same time it rules, norms allow reasonable protection of trade. These means of protection measures is mainly non-tariff barriers. Such as anti-dumping and quarantine measures, technical standards, environmental standards and so on. Many countries, especially in Western developed countries attach great importance to the application of non-tariff measures.
Therefore, China should also be within the WTO framework, the clever use of these international trade protection measures, to build a system of tariffs, non-tariff protection. (1) to strengthen the protection of non-tariff barriers. Want protection system of non-tariff barriers, according to international practice and the needs of the development of China’s economic and trade structure, characteristics, and the introduction of timing, and cooperate with each other as well as transparency, to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth research. In particular, to strengthen the environmental protection measures, the establishment and implementation of the technical standards of safety standards, strictly prevent foreign substandard products contaminatedproducts to enter China in any form. (2) to strengthen the coordination and cooperation measures of non-tariff barriers and tariff barriers. With the decline in tariff rates, the growing role of non-tariff barriers. China’s foreign trade system, tariff and non-tariff means less coordination and traditional non-tariff measures can not meet the protection requirements. Must seize the opportunity to develop both the WTO allows new non-tariff protection measures forks play a protective role of country-specific commodity. In this regard, government procurement, anti-dumping is feasible and necessary.