Sanctity of life has played key role in the evolution and stability of the present International society. The world wars clearly stamped the notion that no country can stay isolated from the other. The way multi-cultural countries suffered equally to the fascist and the victim countries, it served as red letter for survival of humanity. The negative effects of war proved indelible for the world and the rise of International society was imminent. However ineffective institutions like International Court of Justice, War Tribunal, and Interpol etc do exist.
Conflicts act as a great deterrent for nations and bring them on stage of cooperation. Just as the rewards of international order seeped down, incentives like trade, foreign investment and outsourcing, has greatly enhanced the belief of the nations. If loss of life was a negative incentive, economic progress has become a driving positive incentive to maintain peace among countries. Growing awareness of the link between economic and human rights can be seen in other dramatic developments of recent years (Ferencz B. B. , 1980). International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court was established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, so called because it was adopted in Rome, Italy on 17 July 1998 by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (ICC). Currently there are 103 member countries that have signed the statute. USA has recently tried to block the ICC from investigating and holding individuals responsible for the death and displacement in Darfur, an area devastated by Arab militia in Sudan (Refugees International, 2005).
USA argues that the ad hoc tribunals set up by the ICC, are infested with mismanagement. Lessons from the past like the failure of Rwandan Tribunal, has made USA to argue setting up Independent court like the African Union Court. Though US is justified in putting forth its point, but such delay in the onset of justice and reconciliation in Sudan and easing pressure on government, militia and rebel groups to stop the killing of innocents. America needs to play more collaborative and constructive role in the ICC.
UN and force In present context of the clash of cultures, crimes against humanity and violation of human rights; a strong force could be the whip required by the UN in order to be more useful. The main advantage of having a multi ethnic force can help the nations to provide peacekeeping and rescue operations without the risk of cultural clashes. For instance, sending US forces for peacekeeping in Islamic country like Somalia, resulted in a bloody setback.
The local population despised the US marines and rather than seeking protection, people lynched their protectors. While having a strong and large UN force, would open the option of sending regionally sensitized forces. It also saves on logistical resources, as the member countries near the area of concern can contribute their forces for the UN missions. Finally, power begets respect in today’s world, making it necessary for any organization to have armed strength. European Union and South American Community of Nations
At the Third South American Summit, on 8 December 2004, presidents or representatives from twelve South American nations signed the Cuzco Declaration, a two-page statement of intent, announcing the foundation of the South American Community or in Spanish, CSN (Comunidad Sudamericana de Naciones”. Panama attended the signing ceremony as an observer. The leaders announced their intention to model the new community after the European Union, including a common currency, parliament, and passport. According to Allan Wagner, Secretary General of the Andean Community, a complete union like that of the EU should be possible by 2019 (Mercosur, 2006).
In comparison to European Union, CSN has a long way to go. Though culturally, South American countries are more uniform with Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch backgrounds, rivalries over trade deficits has prevented cooperation. While European nations have been under democratic rule for centuries, Chile, Argentina and few others have witnessed exploitation at the hands of dictators. Communist and Nazi element has been the stunting factor for Brazil, considered as the haven for fugitive holocaust perpetrators.
But considering the long drawn path that European Union has already marched over half a century, the CSN is moving at a brisk pace. Poverty and lack of technology is also straining smooth assimilation of countries into CSN. EU had the advantage of common platform of economic prosperity among its founding members. Since, one of the defining principles of CSN is to augment the wealth of member nations, time is not far when CSN will emerge as a major economic bloc.
Mark Falcoff, Fred Gedrich, and Alan Dowd, "Goodbye to the U. N. ," American Enterprise Online, at http://www. taemag.com/issues/articleid. 17773/article_detail. asp (May 5, 2004). BBC News website, ”EU translation plan provokes protest” available at http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk_politics/1490243. stm (August 23, 2006) Refugees International, “International Criminal Court Is Needed To Bring Justice to Darfur” available at http://www. reliefweb. int/rw/RWB. NSF/db900SID/JWIN-69VK3G? OpenDocument (February 5, 2005) Benjamin B Ferencz. “The Coming of International Law and Order”, Whole Earth Papers (November 14, 1980) Mercosur. “S American Community Comes To Light December 9”, Merco Press (November 10, 2006)