Its democratic structure is indigenous and has developed as a consequence of its own concepts and experiences during the past fifteen years. Somaliland’s political structure includes the establishment of several political parties and elections. In addition, its economy is based on free market principles. The government of Somaliland provides protection to women and bestows several rights on them. Its democracy is representative, and this had been approved of by the people in a referendum conducted in the year 2000. Somaliland, had adopted a constitution that was based on the principles of democracy.
There were municipal, presidential and parliamentary elections in the years 2002, 2003 and 2005 respectively. These elections were conducted in a free and fair manner. In the year 2006, Somaliland conducted elections to its local bodies and the national parliament. In this manner, Somaliland is striving hard to protect and maintain democracy. This country had established its fighting spirit in the disastrous situations of the civil war and its aftermath, and this exemplary national morale had enabled it to achieve its present status.
Somaliland became sufficiently resilient to withstand the repercussions of the difficult circumstances that it had experienced, since its independence in the year 1960. However, the international community failed to respond favourably towards this country, and showed considerable reluctance to establish relations with it . Somaliland has aspired to take active part in international forums. To this end it had sought membership in the UN and the African Union. It had also attempted to join various international and regional bodies to maintain good relations with the nations of the world.
Another, major aspiration of this fledgling country has been to obtain free access to international institutions in order to improve its development and in order to establish trade relations with the Western nations . Its aspirations require guarantees and export credits from the US Export – Import Bank. This country has invited foreign investors to take part in the development of the state. In order to promote tourism and to attract investors, Somaliland had removed the existing barriers to business, trade and travel.
In this situation, the state visit of the US Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice to the African continent served to instil confidence and generated considerable hope for Somaliland. It was of the belief that the American foreign policy towards it would be beneficial to its interests . In the past, both the US and the UK had been reluctant to recognise the independence and sovereignty of Somaliland. They had feared that such a move would affect the stance of international community, in respect of this country.
There had been widespread violence in the state at that time, and this had shaped the international community’s adverse opinion about Somaliland. Elsewhere, in Somalia, there was a prevalence of chaotic conditions. However, that environment had been changed for the better by the initiatives of the independent government of Somaliland. The conditions in Somaliland had improved considerably and the quality of living had improved enormously, on account of the steps taken by its government . The capital of the Republic of Somalia is Mogadishu.
This nation was under the rule of President Siad Barre until 1969. Subsequently, civil war ensued in 1991, and the warlords supplanted the President. During this period of the civil war, there was widespread violence and anarchy. In 1993, the former British colony of Somaliland declared its independence from the Republic of Somalia and established its own government. It re – established the national boundaries, and made Hargeisa the capital. However, the international community did not accord recognition to Somaliland .