Which of the following is a function that IHL (International Human Law) imparts only upon the Protecting Powers and not also on the ICRC? a. Transmitting information, documents and relief goods b. Being notified of and assisting in judicial proceedings against protected persons c. Supervising relief missions and evacuations d. Arranging visits to protected persons Answer: b During a non-international armed conflict, opposing forces: a. Are deprived of any protection if captured b. Cannot be sentenced to death if captured c. Are entitled to prisoner of war status if captured d. Can be prosecuted for having taken part in hostilities Answer: d
Which sentence is correct? a. The Hague Convention IV of 1907 contains only rules governing the conduct of hostilities b. No rule concerning the protection of prisoners of war or the civilian population in the power of the enemy can be found in the Hague Convention IV of 1907 c. In case of overlapping between a rule of The Hague Convention IV of 1907 and one of the Geneva Conventions, the former applies d. In case of overlapping between a rule of The Hague Convention IV of 1907 and one of Additional Protocol I, the latter applies, provided that either the State is a Party to Protocol I or the rule of Protocol I codifies a customary rule
Answer: d Which of the following is not true of the ICRC? a. It disseminates the rules of International Humanitarian Law b. It holds formal status at the Diplomatic Conferences that lead to the codification of humanitarian treaties c. It assists persons displaced by conflicts d. It provides medical assistance to conflict victims Answer: b Which of the following rules of HRL is not covered by IHL? a. Protection of health personnel in conflicts b. Rights to assistance c. Freedom of opinion d. Means and methods of warfare Answer: c The ICRC: a.
Shares in common with NGOs the fact that its supreme body is not composed of representatives of States b. Is more similar to an intergovernmental organization than to an NGO c. Is open to foreigners, especially for specialized functions, but its Assembly must, according to the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, be composed of Swiss citizens d. All of the above Answer: b The adoption of the First Geneva Convention in _____ signaled the birth of modern IHL. a. 1848 b. 1864 c. 1914 d. 1945 Answer: b Which of the following does not apply in non-international armed conflicts? a.
Search for the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked b. Protection of the medical mission c. Use of the emblem d. The principle of “distinction between combatants and civilians” Answer: d Combatants: a. Are members of the armed forces b. Do not have the right to participate in hostilities c. If they have fallen into the power of the enemy they become prisoners of war d. Only a. and c. Answer: d Rules governing non international armed conflicts: a. Are composed of treaty rules, mainly contained in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and in Protocol II, and of customary rules, which concern, mainly, the conduct of hostilities
b. Are all contained in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and in Protocol II c. Are all contained in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions d. Are only treaty rules Answer: a Rules concerning civilian persons in the power of the enemy: a. Protect only the civilians who have not taken part in the hostilities b. Protect persons who do not benefit from the protection of the Second Geneva Convention c. Are contained in the Fourth Geneva Convention and in Protocol I d. Are contained in the Fourth Geneva Convention only Answer: c Who may prosecute a war criminal? a.
Only by the parties to the armed conflict during which the crime took place b. All States parties to the Geneva Conventions c. Only by the State of which the victim is a national d. Only by the State of which the criminal is a national Answer: b The UN Charter restricts the use of armed force in international relations. Which of the following is not a UN-sanctioned reason to use force? a. Individual and collective self-defense b. A people’s right to self-determination c. Pre-emptive strikes d. Security Council enforcement Answer: c Which of the following is not a conventional weapon? a. Anthrax
b. Mines and booby traps c. Rifle d. Light explosive projectiles Answer: a IHL is: a. Part of public international law b. A legal system created by States c. Entirely composed of treaties d. Both a and b above Answer: d Which of the following is not true of a combatant? a. Becomes a prisoner of war if captured by the enemy b. May be punished for his or her mere participation in hostilities c. Member of armed forces d. Must distinguish himself/herself from the civilian population Answer: b Compared with Protocol II of 1977, Article 3 common: a. Applies to a more limited range of situations
b. Applies to the same situations c. Can be applied to a broader range of situations d. Develops and supplements its fields of application Answer: a The protective emblem may be displayed: a. By medical and religious personnel b. On medical units and means of transportation c. By persons and things that benefit from a special protection under IHL because they serve to help the wounded, the sick and the shipwrecked d. All of the above Answer: d The ___________________ Geneva Convention protects the civilian population. a. Third b. First c. Second d. Fourth Answer: d
The International Tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda: a. Are based solely on IHL grave breaches provisions b. Are international tribunals created to judge, inter alia, IHL violations committed during specific conflicts c. Are based on resolutions adopted by the Security Council of the United Nations by virtue of Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations d. Only b. and c. Answer: d Which of the following is a legal current concerned with the protection of the victims of armed conflicts (i. e. the non-combatants and those who no longer take part in the hostilities)?
a. International Public Law b. International Humanitarian Law c. The Hague Law d. The Geneva Law Answer: d All of the following are prohibited under Protocol I of 1977 except: a. Ruses of war b. Causing unnecessary suffering or injury c. Perfidy d. Starving a civilian population as a method of combat Answer: a Human Rights Law: a. Is not applicable during times of armed conflicts b. Guarantees the individual, in times of peace, respect of his/her rights and civil, political, economic, social, and cultural freedoms c. Regulates specifically the means and methods of warfare
d. And IHL do not have the same objectives Answer: b The function of Protecting Power is restricted to the: a. States b. International Court of Justice c. UN Security Council d. ICRC Answer: a Which of the following is true of the Statutes of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement? a. They are mandatory for the states and the divisions of the Movement b. They are mandatory for the components of the Movement only c. They have no legal value d. They are adopted by the components of the Movement only Answer: b Which of the following sentences is incorrect? a.
IHL and HRL both contain rules related to the relationship between states and individuals, the latter being the direct object of the standards b. IHL and HRL have the same objective: the protection of the human being c. International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law belong to the same body of law: Public International Law d. IHL and HRL are applicable only in armed conflicts Answer: d The principles of IHL are: a. Philosophical precepts b. Legally-binding rules c. Social custom d. Moral guidelines Answer: b Members of peacekeeping operations: a. Are unarmed b. May use weapons whenever they wish
c. May never use weapons d. May only use weapons in self-defense Answer: d Which of the following is not true of the United Nations and its relationship to IHL? a. It may make decisions or take actions in favor of respect for IHL b. It considers violations of IHL as threats to international peace and security c. Always examines each situation involving the application of IHL d. It evaluates situations that involve the application of IHL in relation to its own objectives, such as the restoration of international peace and security or the respect for human rights, and acts appropriately Answer: c
Violations committed during non international armed conflicts: a. Are a violation of Article 1 common to the Conventions and Protocol I as has been decided by the International Court of Justice b. That are then repressed, are not expressly included in Article 3 common to the Conventions, nor in Protocol II c. Are included in the violations for which the International Tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda are competent d. All of the above Answer: d Which of the following rights is more specifically defined by IHL? a. Right to health b. Prohibition of torture c. Judicial guarantees d.
Medical ethics Answer: a When there is a Protecting Power: a. The ICRC cannot exercise its right of initiative b. The ICRC can, in parallel with the Protecting Power, visit prisoners of war and civilians protected by the Fourth Geneva Convention and undertake, on the basis of its right of initiative, all activities it considers necessary with regard to the interests of the victims c. The ICRC cannot undertake any task in favor of the victims of the conflict d. The ICRC can only, in parallel with the Protecting Power, visit prisoners of war and civilians protected by the Fourth Geneva Convention
Answer: b The extra-conventional right of initiative of the ICRC is mentioned: a. In Article 9/9/9/10 of the four Geneva Conventions respectively and in Article 81, para 1 of Protocol I b. In Article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions c. In the Statutes of the International Movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent d. All of the above Answer: d When the ICRC offers its services in a situation of internal violence not amounting to an armed conflict: a. It takes an initiative which is authorized by IHL b. It takes an initiative which is authorized by the Statutes of the Movement c.
Its offer of services must not be arbitrarily rejected by the Security Council d. Only b. and c. Answer: d With regard to IHL, the role of the ICRC is: a. To prepare any development of IHL b. To decide, with binding effects, because it is entitled to, that a Party to an armed conflict has violated IHL c. To help interpret IHL d. Only a. and c. Answer: d Alexander III proclaimed the Declaration of St. Petersburg in: a. 1848 b. 1864 c. 1868 d. 1899 Answer: c Measures taken to curb states that violate IHL can be taken under the authority of all of the following except: a. International Humanitarian Law
b. General international law of state responsibility c. International Committee of the Red Cross d. United Nations Charter Answer: c According to the Additional Protocols of 1977, the medical personnel defined as such: a. Includes the military medical personnel of a Party to the conflict b. Includes the medical personnel of the National Red Cross or Red Crescent Society of the Party to the conflict c. Includes the medical personnel attached to medical units or medical transports made available to the Party to the conflict by a non belligerent State or an international organization d.
All of the above Answer: d IHL was developed to promote rules: a. Including Human Rights Law b. Governing the legality of the resort to armed force in international relations c. Of jus ad bellum d. Of jus in bello Answer: a The __________________ implements treaties of international human rights law: a. National legislative body of individual States b. International Criminal Court c. International Court of Justice d. UN Security Council Answer: a Jus ad bellum: a. Refers to the principle of fighting a war justly b. Refers to the principle of fighting a war based on just cause, such as self-defense c.
Encompasses standards of proportionality and distinctions between civilians and combatants d. Is still applicable in the contemporary world With regard to limits on methods of warfare, Answer: b Protocol I did all of the following except: a. Introduced completely new provisions b. Revised and clarified some former rules c. Reaffirmed several fundamental principles d. Served to replace the former provisions of 1899 and 1907 Answer: d The activities of the ICRC are: a. Guided by the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocol, for certain specific tasks b. Guided by the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocol, for general tasks
c. Guided by their own statutes d. All of the above Answer: d In the absence of specific prohibitions or limitations, the following general customary rule applies, “Civilians and combatants remain under the protection and authority of the principles of international law derived from established custom, from the principles of humanity, and from dictates of public conscience. ” This rule is known as: a. The Lieber Clause b. Declaration of the Hague c. The Martens Clause d. Convention Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land Answer: c To what types of conflicts do treaties of IHL apply? a.
Only international armed conflicts b. Only internal, non-international armed conflicts c. Internal tensions and violence d. All armed conflicts, international and non-international Answer: d Which of the following is true for traditional peacekeeping? a. It involves non-combat military operations that are undertaken by external forces with the consent of all major parties b. It is designed to monitor and help implement an existing truce c. Peacekeepers deployed on traditional peacekeeping operations are authorized to protect themselves only in self-defense and to protect the civilian components of a PKO
d. All of the above Answer: d Which of the following sentences is correct? a. If states consistently and thoroughly observed the principles of IHL protecting civilians, most population movements due to armed conflicts would be prevented b. Displaced persons are civilians fleeing from armed conflict to a destination outside of their own country c. Refugees are individuals who have fled from an armed conflict to another destination within their own country d. Civilians displaced by international armed conflict are given the same protections as those displaced due to internal armed conflict
Answer: a Which of the following was NOT proposed by Henry Dunant to mitigate the suffering of the victims of war: a. That States adopt an international treaty guaranteeing legal protection to military hospitals and medical personnel b. That certain limitations and prohibitions apply to the means and methods of warfare, as well as the treatment of prisoners-of-war c. That voluntary societies be established in every country which, in times of peace, would prepare themselves to serve as auxiliaries to the military medical services d.
That an international sign of identification and protection of medical personnel and medical facilities be adopted Answer: b The International Humanitarian Fact-Finding Commission: a. Is able to inquire into alleged violations of a party, as long as both parties agree on the competence of the Commission b. Was instituted in Protocol II c. Has received many inquiry requests since its inception d. Is unable to conduct inquiries into violations in non-international armed conflicts Answer: a The ___________________ Geneva Convention protects the sick and wounded. a. Third b. First c. Fourth d. Second Answer: b