International entrepreneurship in Europe

The rapid globalization of world markets has encouraged companies of all sizes to expand internationally. With the economy booming, the opportunities have never been better for entrepreneurs, and this wide-ranging resource offers something for business pioneers of all stripes. As defined by McDougall and Oviatt (2000), international entrepreneurship (IE) is: "a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behaviour that crosses national borders and is intended to create value in organizations".

By research a lot of articles, which point out that Europe has only recently become interested in the growth of entrepreneurship. Risk taking in general is discouraged by most European cultures with business failure being considered a social disgrace. But in recent years, several changes in the social and political climate have conspired to change these traditional, security-conscious culture successful entrepreneurs, some of whom have become cultural heroes and break the stigma.

This paper seeks to present an overview of the recent literature relating to "international entrepreneurship" which may be identified in the European Union. So the purpose of this research paper is to provide background information of international entrepreneurship in European Union, and how that information applies in the future research. 2. Context This paper reviews 15 international entrepreneurship materials gleaned from journal and books. And it suggests that there is much room for further research. 2. 1 PAVLOS. D and SPYROS, L. (2003)

The Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and International Performance: the Importance of Domestic Environment. World Development, 29(4), pp. 641-656. The author investigates the effect of environmental conditions on the association between entrepreneurship and international performance. It presents evidence related to mainly contingency and configurationally effects of international environments. The author's finding stresses the importance of the environmental determinism view suggesting that the alignment of entrepreneurship with domestic environmental conditions enhances international performance.

The article also suggests that domestic country risk reduction policies may not be implemented since these can lower performance abroad for entrepreneurial activities. The author illustrates a lot of examples, some of what are European countries, on the environmental factors, which are helpful for the future research on the environmental benefits of European countries, and it also gives some critical analysis about nowadays Europe international marketing. 

Trends in International Business Research: Twenty-five years later. International Business Studies, 25(4): pp. 687-701. The authors highlighted international entrepreneurship as a newly emerging research direction, and it became clear the arena included comparisons of entrepreneurial behavior in multiple countries and cultures, as well as organization behavior that extends across national borders and is entrepreneurial. They also asserted that international entrepreneurship is a new and somewhat surprising thrust of international business research activity.

In the future research, the entrepreneurial behavior and culture are the important aspect. So depend on the author's view, I can do some further research on this aspect. But this article is lack of evidence to support the author's standpoint. 2. 3 GIAMARTINO, G. A. , MCDOUGALL, P. P. , & BIRD, B. J. (1993). International Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. London: Thomson Learning. GIAMARTION, MCDOUGALL, and BIRD assessed the current state of the field of entrepreneurship by surveying one hundred forty-seven Entrepreneurship Division members.

They identify opportunities and hindrances to the internationalization of entrepreneurship, and examine the appropriate role of the Entrepreneurship Division as well as the Academy of Management in internationalizing. The authors concluded that the next step should be a thorough review of journal outlets for international entrepreneurship research. This article illustrate a lot of cases which is come from our real life, strongly support the author's view, opportunities can give the entrepreneurs a big challenge to survive in the competitive environment. 2. 4 JENNIFER, W.

AND CAROLINA, G (2003). The Relationship Among National Institutional Structures, Economic Factors, And Domestic Entrepreneurial Activity: A Multi-country Study. Business Research. 35(4): pp. 305-321. The author draws on the construct of a country institutional profile to identify normative, cognitive, and regulatory institutional structures that may influence a country's entrepreneurial activity. Results show that these three dimensions of the institutional profile, as well as economic factors, play distinct roles in promoting entrepreneurial activity in a country.

Cognitive institutions explained the prevalence of small firms in a country, as well as the number of new companies listed on the country's stock exchange. Regulatory institutions associated with new listings on the country's stock exchange. Per capita GDP explained basic forms of entrepreneurship but, contrary to expectations, the country's unemployment rate associated only with the most advanced form of entrepreneurship. This article more concentrates on the weakness of international entrepreneurship such as unemployment, economic policy.

But those weakness seems useless in my future research and a lot of professors (BENITO and WEICH, 1997) argue that " entrepreneurs become globalization will give the market some new dynamics. " And there is also lack of other authors view to support this point. 2. 5 NICOLE, E. AND MARIAN, V. (2003) Methodological issues In International Entrepreneurship. Business Venturing, 29(3), pp. 351-378. This research paper collect fifty-five articles which were systematically analyzed focusing on time frame and research context, sample characteristics, data analysis procedures, and equivalence issues.

Results indicate both strengths and weaknesses in international entrepreneurship methods. The authors present implications for developing a unifying methodological direction in the field and the evolution of a truly multidisciplinary approach. Author discusses the need for better international entrepreneurship sampling frames and call for more effort in establishing and reporting equivalence in cross-national studies. The standpoint of author is supported by a lot of other authors, and some of the point will helpful for the future research on characteristics of the international entrepreneurship.

2. 6 SHAKER, Z. JAMES, H AND HUGH, O. (August, 2001) Fostering Entrepreneurship During international Expansion: Managing Key Challenges. European Management, 19(4), pp. 359-369. This article identifies several challenges companies encounter as they attempt to promote entrepreneurship and it discusses ways executives can creatively address them. The article shows how managing these challenges can encourage organizational learning of new skills, thereby giving companies new competencies that allow them to profit from expanding their international operations.

As internationalization continues to accelerate, companies need to invest heavily in learning and developing new core competencies in their foreign markets. In this article, entrepreneurship refers to a company's formal and informal activities aimed at increasing innovation and venturing. The author gives a new field to explain entrepreneurship, and some other authors (ZAHRA and GARVIS, 2000) also agrees this explanation, so this gives a new aspect in the future research.