Intellectual property rights for electronic Companies

Intellectual property rights for electronic Companies

Bug Inc will focus on safeguarding both the tangible and intangible assets in its possession. Tangible assets include property owned by Bug Inc, such as manufacturing plants, the electronics manufactured, offices, and equipment. Intangible assets include software that drives the equipment, trade secrets, internet patents, and copyright. There are several intellectual property management options that bug may use. Information technology, for example, is increasingly being used to create, manage, use, and deliver intellectual content. Some of the available tools for management of electronics include standards. A company might wish to adhere to certain standards. Standards include Interoperatibility of Data for Electronic Commerce Systems (INDECS). This framework was created by several organizations involved in the creation and management of digital content, with the aim of supporting electronic commerce and the management of intellectual property rights. The INDECS model can be used to describe and identify intellectual property, the parties involved in the exchange of intellectual property, and the agreements between them. Using such a system would make it far much easier for BUG Inc not only to manage its intellectual property but improve its commerce, both locally and abroad.

Another standard Bug may use is MPEG 21, which was created by developed by the Moving Pictures Experts Group. This does not limit itself to moving pictures only, includes all multimedia formats. Because sound is a multimedia format, Bug may also be involved in this technology. MPEG 21 is not only used in intellectual property management but is also used in supporting, identification and description of digital resources as well as handling and usage of multimedia content. According to Moving Pictures Experts Group, it is  designed to “enable transparent and augmented use of multimedia resources across a wide range of networks and devices used by different communities. It allows the integration of the processes required to generate, manipulate, use, manage, and deliver multimedia files.”

Another tool used to manage intellectual property as far as electronic goods and equipment are concerned is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). This tool was Developed by the International DOI Foundation. According to International DOI Foundation, DOI is a “system for identifying and exchanging intellectual property in the digital environment. It provides a framework for managing intellectual content, for linking customers with content suppliers, for facilitating electronic commerce, and enabling automated copyright management for all types of media”. Although a fee is charged for the use of DOI, it is an effective tool for managing intellectual property, for example, in identification of objects such as URLs. However, the main application DOI is put into electronic publishing industry, though it can also be used by rights holders on any type of intellectual property.

The international standard Organization also has several tools that can be used to manage intellectual property. These are contained within ISO/TC 46/SC 9 (the Information Resources Subcommittee of the International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee for Information and Documentation Standards). They are used to identify intellectual property including sound recordings, audio-visual works, textual works, musical works, etc. one such tool is ISO 3901, or International Standard Recording Code (ISRC). This tool has a unique ability for identification of sound recordings and music video recordings. Although it is biased towards musical recordings, Bug Inc may use it for identification of sounds within its area of operation.

Another tool which can be used ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code), also known as ISO 15707.  According to ISO, “the ISWC will uniquely distinguish musical works from one another within computer databases and related documentation and for the purposes of collecting societies involved in the administration of rights to musical works” the tool identifies a musical work as an intangible creation. ISO is in the process of developing other electronic intellectual property management tools, which include the following: ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number), which, according to ISO, will be a “voluntary numbering system for the identification of audiovisual works. It will provide a unique, internationally recognized and permanent reference number for each audiovisual work… the ISAN will remain the same for an audiovisual work regardless of the various formats in which it is distributed.”; and ISTC (International Standard Textual Work Code) “will be a numbering system for the unique identification of textual works…the ISTC will be an identifier for the work itself. It will not apply to physical products and other manifestations of a work (e.g. an edition of a book; an article printed in a journal; a talking book; or the electronic versions of such products). Both of these tools can be used by BUG Inc in their electronic business.

There are several reasons why BUG Inc should ratify these and other intellectual property rights management methods. They will help prevent data from being used against their will. They will also provide a legal framework on which infringement can be followed up in a court of law. Additionally, the protection of both tangible and intangible assets is necessary as well as providing an enabling business environment both locally and abroad.

Copyright infringement by Wiretap Inc: conflicting of Laws

BUG Inc could use a traceable email to implicate Steve of lies, fraud and deception. Some companies consider traceable emails a legitimate investigative tool and use the many times to track suspicious emails. However, in order to be able to use web bugs, Bug Inc should comply to all software and internet legal issues regarding the use of traceable emails and web bugs. These would include both national and international. BUG Inc should also consider finding out the recognition of traceable email and web bugs as legitimate investigative tools in the international market, as conflicts may occur between local and international laws.

Criminal charges can be filed against wiretap Inc for attempting to fraudulently acquire copyrighted material. This would fall under laws governing software patents and trade secrets. All software is protected by international laws and treaties, and anyone attempting to use software without a license is liable to criminal charges and penalties.

Finally, Bug Inc could consider the use of pretexting, a technique used to obtain call records. This can be used against both Steve and the management of wiretap Inc for attempting to gather information from Bug Inc. Again, Bug should ensure that the laws regarding the use of pretexting are adhered to, as well as find out the application of such methods at international level. This is will avoid the occurrence of law suits against Bug Inc on the use of non-legal investigative methods, like it happened on HP Inc in 2006 (faced trial for using pretexting while investigating leakage in information from the company).

References (2008). Metadata standards for museum cataloging. Retrived on 25th October 2008 from

Wikipedia (2008). Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved October 25th from