ICT is a gateway to many new opportunities for higher-value products and services, for which Governments and private organizations need to, invest in. The approach to ICT investment by many Governments and private organization has led to strategic research around key technology pillars that involve the work processes and ensure end-to-end integration of technologies. This has provided a platform for the development of knowledge and the means to develop a wide range of innovative ICT applications.
This has led to the collaboration and networking actions of different players in the industry in order to make Information Technology work on different Platforms as well as for many different groups. The active participation by all stakeholders in the society in the development of ICT has been essential in promoting innovation. They have played vital roles in the development and nurturing of new visions in Information Technology and their applications therefore transforming them into business assets for many. Introduction Back ground of Information Technology development
Information technology has extremely become popular within the past three decades. This resulted from the growth of computers that has shaped our current society. However due to the fact that Computers have become well used in a more pervasive environment may be required in the aspects of information security. (Gandino, F 2010) Citizens now rely on computer technology in order to store, process and send information. As such, the demand to understand what information technology is has grown to the level of demand on computing utility.
Information technology is relied upon to preserve the quality of data the world population would use in his or her everyday affairs. From the instant people wake up until they go to bed, there is always a flow of information. This includes newspapers, mobile phones, televisions, radios and computers. The speed of technology has progressed to a note-worthy distinction. Every innovation in technology attaches a convenience factor and instead of using loads of paper in order to store data. Now the information is stored and processed in a computer.
This is evidenced by many Governments initiating large IT projects and the digitalization of the Governments is evidence of the way information technology has been embraced in the different government quarters around the world. The importance of information technology can be categorised to different sectors of the economy as follows; Areas which are run be information technology Governments Government are comprised of many different institutions. The developments in information technology have helped governments to improve service delivery to their citizens.
In regard to the numerous operations in the Government different areas need different applications but the mostly used is the database. The use of Databases has enabled the governments of various countries to collect and monitor statistical information for example births, registration and financial operations. These have been effective in combating fraud and ensuring effectiveness in the Government operations. This has also helped in managing the economy in a more organized manner. Information Technology is also greatly used in the defence capabilities of governments.
There has been development of systems that monitor and analyze the security status of areas and countries and these have opened a new page in the circles of military and intelligence capabilities of a country. The government's capability to wage war and their intelligence gathering capability is far much better and sophisticated than ever before (United States Government Accountability Office, June, 2007). There has been advance in weapons technology and weapons design by many governments' armed forces.
The use of Information Technology has made it possible to design aeroplanes such as the B2 Bomber. The role of Information Technology in the development of The B2 bomber is in the ability to develop a continuous curvature design to minimise radar signature. This is in light of development of systems such as AUTOCAD. It would have been impossible come up with such a design and completion of the aeroplane without the use of computer modelling techniques and software. The use of the technology has had its impact on the Government intelligence agencies.
For example the Encryption of sensitive information has enabled governments to obtain a well secured database of operations and important files termed “confidential”. Therefore with these examples we ascertain that Information Technology has had a major role in the Government circles (Michael, 2001). Commercial Businesses The innovations in information technology have had positive influence on commercial businesses in many ways. The reason why many managers adopt the use of information technology in their commercial business is to achieve commercial advantage.
Innovations such as computer aided design; database, spreadsheets, and word processing software are required to provide a commercial benefit to the business. Similarly to a manufacturing business the automation of the manufacturing processes translates to efficiency, effectiveness and more results. The ability to determine what the customer needs is and how to provide the best above what the needs are provides significant advantage. This acquisition of this information can be made possible by the use of information technology systems. Information technology is also used to monitor the performance index of the business.
This is important in helping the business to highlight areas where they are experiencing problems and they are not making the most use of their resources. Use of information technologies systems in managing businesses can also increase the businesses income through efficiency and effectiveness. Through advertising in the various available forums also is another way Information technology can be put to use to increase income. This means that businesses have input a lot of resources in establishing stable business through the use of information technology.
Online marketing is an area which is prone to market or online fraud (Eric, 2002). News & Media organisations The nature of news and media organisations makes use of information technologies in every part of their business operations. Information technology is used to store, manipulate, distribute or create information and this is the area of business for the News and media organisations. They are deeply involved with these elements of information technology where by the obtain information store and manipulate it in order to produce the best for their audience.
The use of Internet and satellite television developed a new platform for the media companies to reach their audience. Through this the media organizations can disseminate their information across the globe. For the past thirty years gradual developments have seen the news and media organisations access more people. Information Technology has enabled the publishing of information on the Internet thus making it possible for anyone to publish information and access it from anywhere in the world (Michael, 2001).
Learning Institutions The introduction of information technology related courses in institutions of learning is a move that recognises the developments in information technology. These courses are introduced so as to satisfy the demand for qualified and professionals individuals to develop and continue with the information technologies innovations. The role of educational Institutions is also the responsibility of researching, developing and distributing information related to information technology issues.
Lecturer, books written by scholars, on-line resources are reliable sources for information to students and the general public on matters of Information technology. The processes used by the learning establishments in distributing information are diverse and the process is more effective than before (Delloitte, 2010). The role of institutions such as Universities is to create information by research. The application of Information technologies has enabled researchers to get access to a wide source of information than they previously could.
Through the use of technology as the Internet collaboration and cooperation has been enabled between different institutions and through other related technologies such as email enabled collaborative projects to be undertaken between groups from different geographical areas. The diverse areas of information technology profession have different ways with which they integrate with the business processes. An analysis of the influence of information technology on the collective business activities and processes is wide.
In order to analyse the processes properly we have to look at the various activities and processes in the different areas such as education, news and media and Government and how the people in these areas use the technology for social purposes (Euresearch, 2009). Work Processes As the integration of information technology is enhanced in the business and Government operations many aspects arise in relation to the security of information in the systems is put into account. Many business processes involve sharing and distribution of information, storage and crime will always find its way within the high-tech society.
Computer science and information technology have been involved in the different sectors of society that have specific distinguishable needs. As such, the sciences adapt to the various demands of humans. The government, private and public sectors have unique needs that must be addressed. All these needs however are subject to risks that are plaguing the industry. The risk of information security has been a bomb waiting to explode as it has gradually got complex as technology becomes more sophisticated (Matthew). Information security
With the importance of the use of technology and its widespread span of its clutches, information must be kept secure for the benefit of all human kind and the concerned companies or Institutions. The federal government as well as the private industry relies profoundly on information processing systems in order to accomplish financial, operational and information technology requirements. Any type of fraud, unauthorized disclosure and or theft of a given resource could have the potential to disturb services that could have an impact on our legal system, safety, financial system, privacy as well as our confidentiality.
There is a widespread use of cluster systems in different sectors in our country and federal states and there is an ever increasing threat to computer security. This makes it is necessary to design and build more secure systems. (Distributed Computing 2010) Since Breach in security still remains the ultimate problem in our private and government sectors I will discuss the different ways that a breach in security can affect the society along with the federal government and private and public organizations (Eric, 2002). Hardware security
The threat to breach of security varies from the hardware part to the system part which is the software or platform on which the information technology is used. The threat of hard ware can be explained with this scenario. In July 2006, President George W. Bush expressed dismay in May of 2006 about the theft of a laptop containing personal information about 26 million veterans and his or her families. (Pike 2008) The laptop has sense been recovered but the security issues that rose were something that not anyone would be pleased about. (Pike 2008) The matter was not an issue of expense, but rather discipline.
(Pike 2008) Eventually it was discovered that some of the basic controls were not promulgated which was upsetting for the government. The private sector is essentially facing the same threats as the government. There are important hardware systems that store information and also facilitate the proper operations of the company which face the risks of being stolen or tampered with hence resulting to the loss of very important information that cannot be recovered. This has called for very harsh measures in ensuring the safety of the hardware systems.
A lot of millions of dollars have been spent to ensure high security levels are maintained. The threat can also pose a secondary threat of hacking. The theft may be a primary action in order to access the information contained in the machine. These are potential security threats that face companies and their information technology systems (Matthew). Another kind of possible physical threat may manifest from a wide range of attacks for example bomb threats, causing the evacuation of a key facility, to large conventional truck bombs.
Physical attacks are mainly launched with the intention of destabilising the infrastructure and proper steps must be taken to be secure from this type of attack. This kind of threat is related to the other kinds of threat which directly affects information. Systems such as the intelligence in the government have security at the information level and the hardware level. A scenario of the case of the military where they have restricted access to particular information can be classified to be the highest level of information security. Information and software security Hacking
It has been heard in the corridor of pentagon when military officials use the phrase “I can’t tell you. Its classified information,” In today’s age when the United States government is expressly battling terrorism; the national defence is the government’s main concern and this is strictly related to secrecy. All information about military comings and goings are stored in a heavily protected and secured database or databases that even an unsuccessful attempt to infiltrate could lead to a lifetime imprisonment. Still there are individuals who can dare to hack and penetrate the systems security put in place.
Of recent there have been complaints from the United States Government about cyber attack and hacking from China. There are hackers out there who will willingly take criminal assignation from corporate competitors. A business has tons of functions but the most delicate kind would be Research and Development. In order to stay competitive within a tight industry, companies are always seeking ways to improve the products and services that they offer to the public. They spend hundreds of millions of dollars trying to find the perfect product that can ease the lives of the billions of people on the planet.
Some competitors do not play fair and square, rather than developing ideas of their own. In sense, they just try to divulge whatever information they can from the other companies’ databases by the means of stealing. Added to these hackers, even consumers can easily commit security threats to the company. Internet crime can affect an organizations security at any given time. (Bejtlich 2005) Card fraud There are other major threats and risks to data, information, assets, and transactions have gradually and continually evolved. The techniques of countering the crimes are not at pace thus leaving a loophole to issue of cyber security.
The current security approach is not effective against cyber criminals and organizations. Cyber criminals have amassed their profits in developing new strategies for circumventing the security technologies that are in place. The online operations that are also in danger of attack are online financial transactions. Credit cards have been the most common types of transactions online and cyber criminals are targeting the online shoppers. Card skimming which is the electronic theft of information from the magnetic strips of credit cards is the fastest-growing scam. It has grown from scam to cyber crime.
Where people buy card information and make purchases with stolen credit. In 2009 there were 220 million personal records globally and those crimes included falsification of identification, credit card theft and social security number fraud. (Nugent 2010) As a result of online shopping, credit card security has often been questionable by many. Easily, an unknown person could steal another’s card and act as if as they were that individual and attempt to purchase $10,000 worth of merchandise from Amazon. com. Such pranks are not uncommon these days and online companies have a good fraud detector to stop unlawful use of credit cards.
Although each organisation is unique, all organisations face threats in its day-to-day operations. It is likely to encounter threat agents who are responsible for successful and attempted break in against the organisation’s system. These agents’ may be from inside the organization, industrial espionage by competitors or organised crime and structured and unstructured hackers. In information security is important and once there is breach of security then there is danger both to hardware and software. All types of breach of security will lead to loose of information and also to the high costs of replacing the lost resources.
When information is lost after a breach in the security protocol then recovering ma it may be hard. For this we can say information security is same whether for hardware or software. Since the ultimate goal is to avoid loss of information and the systems. In regards to online fraud, loss of card information is tantamount to great loss. Since this information is used by someone else leading to the loss of the credit on your card. Solutions Establishing a secure system that helps to protect the area where there are sensitive information systems such as servers and other machines responsible for storing information.
The access system should stop any intrusion from unauthorised members. A system that monitors access to information and restricts unauthorised personnel from accessing information should be developed. The correct use of credit cards and the users should avoid revealing of any information to anyone except when making transactions. When doing online transactions credit card users should check the validity and authenticity of the websites. Conclusion Information security is a critical issue that should be addressed properly. There should not be any chances left to give an opening to any threat.
This is a reason why the private sector should carry out risk management decisions in anticipation of a valid threat context. . The management of all organizations and government administrators must critically address the issue regarding potential threats. This is in the hope that more organisations will take the initiative of investigating the realistic threats facing IT infrastructures hence highlighting the weakness in the system. References Bejtlich, R. (2005). The TAO of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection (10th Ed. ). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Delloitte. (2010). Cyber crime: a clear and present danger. Combating the fastest growing cyber security threat , pp. 3-15. Eric, L. (2002, April 25). CIA Warns of Chinese Plans for Cyber-Attacks on U. S. Topic: Cyber Warfare . Euresearch. (2009). Information and Communication Technologies ICT. Euresearch; , 1-5. Gandino, F. , Montrucchio, B. , & Rebaudengo, M. (2010). Tampering in RFID: A Survey on Risks and Defences. Mobile Networks and Applications, 15(4), 502-516. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2062219751). Matthew, G. D. Current and Emerging Threats to Information Technology Systems and Critical Infrastructures. Reston, USA: Business Briefing: Global Security Systems. Michael, G. (2001). Information Technology and Society.
Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich. Nugent, L. (2010, April). Dark side of the Internet. American Agent & Broker, 82(4), 36-39, 42. United States Government Accountability Office. (June, 2007). CYBERCRIME Public and Private Entities Face Challenges in Addressing Cyber Threats. Washington: United States Government Accountability Office.