Industry – Bengal

The Jute industry occupies significant place in the Indian economy. The Indian Jute Industry is a very old & predominant in the eastern part of India. The Government of India has included the Jute Industry for special attention in its National Common Minimum Programme. It forms an integral part of the Indian Textile Industry. Further, the Jute industry contributes to the national exchequer from exports & taxes. | | The history of jute manufacturing in India dates back to 1854, when the first mill was set up at Rishra near Kolkata, by an Englishman, George Aukland.

By 1860, the Hoogly basin became the centre of jute mill industry in India. In 1971, Jute Corporation of India was set up with its headquarters at Kolkata, with a view to stabilize price of raw jute and marketing of jute products abroad. The jute industry is traditionally export oriented. India ranks first in raw jute and jute goods production. It ranks second in export of jute goods in the world. Jute packing materials are facing tough competition from other low cost synthetic substitutes. ute is one of the most important fibres.

It is used for manufacturing various items like hessian, gunny bags, ropes, rugs, carpets, etc. Jute bags are in great demand for the storage of agricultural and industrial products such as wheat, rice, gram, maize, pulses, sugar, fertilizers, cement etc. The other jute products are used for various other purposes. The Indian Jute Industry plays a key role in the Indian economy, providing direct employment to about 0. 26 million workers, and supporting the lives of around 4. 0 million farm families. Around 0. 14 million people are engaged in the tertiary sector, that supports the jute industry.

Currently it contributes to exports about Rs. 1000 crore. Jute mills are majorly located in West Bengal Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tripura and Chhattisgarh. India has around 78 Jute Mills The jute industry is traditionally export oriented. India ranks first in raw jute and jute goods production. It ranks second in export of jute goods in the world. Jute packing materials are facing tough competition from other low cost synthetic substitutes. Thus, efforts were made by the Government of India for the extension of area under jute in the country after independence.

From a paltry production of about 16-5 lakh bales in 1947-48 the production of raw jute rose to 60 lakh bales in 1961-62 and 120 lakh bales in 1985-86. There are 69 jute mills in the country with a total installed capacity of 44,376 looms. The industry has absorbed about 2-5 lakh industrial workers. The most important feature of the jute mill industry in India is its concentration in the lower Hoogly basin, within a radius of about 64 kms of Kolkata. This region alone has 55 jute mills. Jute manufacturing in this region has responded to a variety of factors.

In the recent years cut in power supply has become another problem for the industry. However, the jute mill industry has made a great progress in the country. The demand for jute products has increased mainly on account of development of agriculture and industries in the world. TEA The cultivation and brewing of tea in India has a long history. Commercial production of tea in India begins with the arrival of the British East India Company, at which point large tracts of land were converted for mass tea production.

[1] The widespread popularity of tea as a recreational drink begins in the 1950s, after a successful advertising campaign by the India Tea Board. [1] Tea isn’t simply tea in India but it is like a staple beverage here and a day without it is impossible and incomplete. Indians prefer their steaming cup of tea because for them it acts as an energy booster and is simply indispensable. This popular beverage has a lot of health benefits too as its antioxidants help to eliminate toxins and free radicals from the blood.

Tea was first introduced into India by the British, in an attempt to break the Chinese monopoly on tea. [1] The British, “using Chinese seeds, plus Chinese planting and cultivating techniques, launched a tea industry by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate tea for export. “[1] Tea was originally only consumed by Anglicized Indians, and it was not until the 1950s that tea grew widely popular in India through a successful advertising campaign by the India Tea Board.

[2] Prior to the British, the plant may have been used for medicinal purposes. “The tea cultivation begun there [India] in the nineteenth century by the British, however, has accelerated to the point that today India is listed as the world’s leading producer, its 715,000 tons well ahead of China’s 540,000 tons, and of course, the teas of Assam, Ceylon (from the island nation known as Sri Lanka), and Darjeeling are world famous. However, because Indians average half a cup daily on per capita basis, fully 70 percent of India’s immense crop is consumed locally.

” Originally tea is indigenous to the Eastern and Northern parts of India, but the tea industry has expanded and grown tremendously over the years, making India the largest grower and producer of tea in the world. The tea production in India was 979,000 tonnes as of 2009. In terms of consumption, export and production of tea, India is the world leader. It accounts for 31% of the global production of tea. India has retained its leadership over the tea industry for the last 150 years. The total turnover of this industry is roughly Rs.

10, 000 crores. Since 1947, the tea production in India has increased by 250% and the land are used for production has increased by 40%. The three prominent tea-growing regions in India are Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiri. While Darjeeling and Assam are located in the Northeast regions, Nilgiri is a part of the southern region of the country. A visit to these regions is made truly memorable by the endless rolling carpets of green which are the tea gardens and one cannot but help feeling enthralled and captivated at the sight of the huge tea estates.

The major tea-producing states in India are: Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim,Nagaland, Uttarakhand, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Bihar, Orissa. CONCLUSION past The history of organized industry in India may be traced to 1854 when the real beginning of the cotton mill industry was made in Bombay. The foundations of jute industry were laid near Calcutta in 1855, Coal-mining also progressed about this time. The real expansion in cotton textile industry was noticed during 1870’s following the spurt in demand in the wake of American civil war.

By 1875-76 the number of mills rose to 47, of which about 62 per cent were located within the city of Mumbai (21 per cent in Bombay Presidency). The laying of first rail line between Mumbai and Thane in 1854 proved beneficial in this context. Uptil 1913-14, before First World War, the number of cotton textile mills rose to 271 with total employment of 2, 60,000. Present The period from 1945 to 1947 was a time of crisis for industries during which production fell down due to decreasing demand for industrial products, lack of capital, skilled labour, political unrest, transport bottleneck and labour strike.

The partition of the country in 1947 gave severe blow to jute, cotton textile and chemical Indus due to disruption in raw material supply, shorta skilled labour and breaches in railway transport them. Major industries including cement, cheer ‘ sugar, power and ferrous metals which appeared the beginning of the 20th century, continued develop. Besides Mumbai, Kolkata, new center emerged in Bihar (metallurgy, cement, sugar),U’ Pradesh (sugar, textile and glass), and Madhya Pradesh (textile).

However, the total industrial outputs’ inadequate to meet the internal demand and t’ was little diversification. CURRENT Remarkable developments of the agro-based industries in India started during the pre-independence days. The corporate sector fosters cotton mills, sugar mills and jute mills. The Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) has revealed that the farm output In India is bound to increase by 10 percent to 114 million ton (MT) over the Kharif season, while during the winter ( Rabbi season), it will increase by 2 percent making it around 116.

6 MT. The Agricultural and processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) has stated that India’s exports of fruits, vegetables, cereals and processed food products was worth US$ 1. 14billion during April May 2010-11 period. About 70 percent of the India’s agriculture and processed food is being exported to countries including Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America.

This data has revealed that the Indian Economy is governed by the Agriculture Industry to a large extent, which is dependent on the uncertainties of rainfall and a set of other natural forces. CHINA Statistics show that China’s agro-product processing industries have increased by 8. 5 percent since 1995. In 2003, the added value of the industries achieved 780 billion yuan (US$94. 3 billion), increasing by 11. 9 percent from the previous year and 25 percent of the country’s total industrial added value. GOV’S STRATEGIES