Industrial Revolution • Origin in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engine • Spread to Europe and the United States • Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries • Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement • Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries • Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world Technological advances that produced the Industrial Revolution • James Watt—Steam engine
• John Kay – flying shuttle • James Hargreaves – spinning jenny • Richard Arkwright – water frame • Eli Whitney—Cotton gin • Henry Bessemer—Process for making steel Advancements in science and medicine • Edward Jenner—Developed smallpox vaccination • Louis Pasteur—Discovered bacteria and developed pasteurization process to kill bacteria • Charles Darwin – Theory of Evolution Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries • Population increase • Eventually increased standards of living for many, though not all • Improved transportation • Urbanization – led to sanitation problems, disease → social reform, medical care improves
• Environmental pollution • Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions and low pay • Growth of the middle class – managers and merchants gained enough money to become middle class The nature of work in the factory system
• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system • Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages • Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high • Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery
• The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations. • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery based on moral arguments and calls for implementation of enlightenment ideals Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor led to reforms to end child labor • Expansion of education as children no longer sent into mines and factories; need somewhere for them • Women’s increased demands for suffrage
• Increase of mass culture (appeal and availability of entertainment to many) & developing consumerism The rise of labor unions • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase wages and improve working conditions • Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children • Wanted worker rights and collective bargaining between labor and management Rise of Capitalism
CAPITALISM AND MARKET COMPETITION FUELED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. WEALTH INCREASED THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR SOME. SOCIAL DISLOCATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPITALISM PRODUCED A RANGE OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IDEAS, INCLUDING SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM. Capitalism
• Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations- laissez faire capitalism (no government intervention in the economy) • Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities • Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class • Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society Socialism
• Believed wealthy and/or government should take action to make people’s lives better • Jeremy Bentham – Utilitarianism (judge usefulness of ideas & actions based on benefit for greatest number of people) • Charles Fourier – believed the factors of production should be owned and operated by the public for the benefit of all and government planning of the economy should exist to increase equality and opportunity Communism
• Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) argued that history of human society is defined by class struggles • Response to the injustices of capitalism focusing on the exploitation of the workers (proletariat) by the upper class/factory owners (bourgeoisie) • Believed a workers revolution would end classes and create a class-less society where everything is owned and operated and shared equally by the people – communism, the final phase/degree of socialism
Chapter 27 - Imperialism INDUSTRIAL NATIONS IN EUROPE NEEDED NATURAL RESOURCES AND MARKETS TO EXPAND THEIR ECONOMIES. THESE NATIONS COMPETED TO CONTROL AFRICA AND ASIA TO SECURE THEIR ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SUCCESS. IMPERIALISM SPREAD ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL PHILOSOPHIES OF EUROPE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
RESISTANCE TO IMPERIALISM TOOK MANY FORMS INCLUDING ARMED CONFLICT AND INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS. NATIONALISM MOTIVATED EUROPEAN NATIONS TO COMPETE FOR COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. EUROPEAN ECONOMIC, MILITARY, AND POLITICAL POWER FORCED COLONIZED COUNTRIES TO TRADE ON EUROPEAN TERMS. INDUSTRIALLY-PRODUCED GOODS FLOODED COLONIAL MARKETS AND DISPLACED THEIR TRADITIONAL INDUSTRIES. COLONIZED PEOPLES RESISTED EUROPEAN DOMINATION AND RESPONDED IN DIVERSE WAYS TO WESTERN INFLUENCES.
Forms of imperialism • Colonies – country/territory governed internally by a foreign power • Protectorates – country/territory with its own internal government but under control of a foreign power • Spheres of influence – area where outside power claims exclusive trading/investment privilege • Direct control: foreign officials rule; no self-rule; goal is to assimilate natives (make them like Europeans – language, customs, etc.) • Indirect control: local government officials used (as puppet rulers); limited self-rule; goal to develop future leaders; some local customs/rules may remain Imperialism in Africa
• Limited colonial presence beyond the coast before 1880s • Belgium claimed the Congo for extraction of rubber which set in motion a “scramble for Africa” that led to Berlin Conference 1884-85 in which the entire continent was divided amongst European nations.
• Ethiopia remained independent after defeating the Italians in 1896 • Zulu resisted British in Southeast Africa; Maji Maji Rebellion in German East Africa; European military technology (specifically Maxim gun) far superior. • Negative effects: lost land and independence; thousands die in unsuccessful resistance movements and in famines caused by forced switch to cash crops; loss of culture; artificially-imposed boundaries
• “Positive” effects: schools and hospitals built increasing literacy and life spans; railroads & dams built; telephone and telegraph lines placed – all for sale of African products (yet under colonial control) Imperialism in the Middle East
• 1853 Russia went to war with Ottomans to gain land and access to the Mediterranean (Crimean War); Britain and France supported Ottomans to keep Russia from gaining control of Ottoman lands; Ottomans lost land in Balkans (SE Europe) and North Africa (showing weakness of Ottomans)
• “The Great Game” played over lands in Central Asia (Afghanistan) between Russia and Britain; no successes in conquering Afghanistan for Britain but they kept control over India • Muhammad Ali gained independence for Egypt in 1830s and gained support from western nations; planted cash crop of cotton.
Ali’s grandson supported construction of Suez Canal but lost to Britain over debt • After internal tensions over concessions to Europeans Britain and Russia divided Persia into spheres of influence • Oil discovered in Persia in 1908 and in Arabian Peninsula in 1930s increasing significance of the region Imperialism in India
• Battle of Plassey (1757) saw British East India Company (EIC) defeat the Indians and took control until 1858 when British crown took over as Raj • “jewel in the crown” because of major supplier of raw materials and market for British finished products; British built railroads and established plantations • EIC army staffed by Indian soldiers (sepoys) who revolted in 1857; increased control by and racism of British which increased nationalism amongst Indians • Similar positives and negatives to Africa as a result of the colonial period Imperialism in Southeast Asia
• In the 1800s the Dutch controlled Indonesia, Britain controlled the Malay Peninsula (Singapore) & Burma, France controlled Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos) • Siam (Thailand) remained independent by playing European powers off each other and modernized themselves.
• Colonial rule in Southeast Asia was harsh and exploitive of the people and environment. • The Philippines was colonized by Spain but was colonized by America after defeating Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; Filipino nationalists resented American colonialism and fought for independence. • America annexed Hawaii in 1898 for economic gain (sugar plantations) after removing the indigenous ruler