The Industrial Revolution was a period of great innovation and movement that affected the whole world; in one way or another. There were plenty of reason why the revolution emerged in Great Britain, they included steadiness in their social, economic, and political views. Britain worked sedulously especially on their navy, since the country was surrounded by water that played an enormous role on their part.
The ocean helped in varies openings to a world of an endless opportunity both in economic and political sectors. Another important advantage the British had were colonies, which provided limitless supply of raw materials at little to no cost to the British. This way they were able to steadily grow at a faster rate, because of having invented Spinning Jenny and Water Frame.
Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves, the main reason why it became popular was because the simple mechanics it used, not to mention it was quite economical to use. The Water Frame was invented by Richard Arkwright, it came to existence particularly used for cotton spinning mill. This steady growth could not have been carried out without the steam engine, which was invented by James Watt in 1763, the steam engine made quick and cheap way to transportation in just a couple of hours to days depending on the distance need to be covered.
After hearing all these great ideas and success from this industrial revolution, the children were used badly as labors in factors, and farms. They played a significant role in this revolution to an extent that many of them were injuries operating machinery. Many future countries gained important knowledge from the British revolution that they used some of these tactics in other industrial revolutions.
The location of Great Britain was significantly the most ideal for the flourishing of the first industrial revolution in the world. As a result of Britain being surrounded by water, other neighboring countries were greatly influenced . This statement can be proven valid according to the “Geographic Background and Concepts: The Industrial Revolution.” many of the countries around Britain became an industrial center.
This text mentions, ” Those regions in which water power was readily available, such as Switzerland and parts of France, Italy, and Scandinavia, also became important industrial centers through the development of hydroelectric power in the second half of the nineteenth century. Europe as a whole also had the advantage of being well endowed with iron ore, sulfur, and salt.”(Primohistory) Great Britain wanted to involve the whole Europe so that they would not have any enemies’ in their geographical location.
They were a very intelligent, strategy, and promiscuous type of empire in Europe but yet indirectly the opposite in their colonies. The British knew how to rule and how to treat their neighbors and the colonies. I have noticed that when they leave a colony they always try to have peaceful relations with everyone, making them think that they are being nice. Instead they do that to hold good contact for future business deals and project.
The colonies better known as third-world countries played substantial role in the revolution. An article that I came across though my research was about Indian and described Indian did benefit from the being a colony of Britain. There are many positive and negative effects on India followed by the Britain Industrial revolution. India was able to have trains that were constructed by the English, they are used till this day and age. Indian was the biggest cotton making industry for the British. As explained in Western Civilization:
A Brief History,” Indian had become one of the world’s greatest exporters of cotton cloth produced by hand labor.”( Spielvogel). India have a very hard working class, but yet were not treated fairly because the British would always look down upon them.
For example, at the decline of Indian’s Industry because of the English taking lower prices on raw materials, ultimately higher profits for the English. As mentioned in “Industries in India during 18th and 19th Century.”, ” The market of the chief Indian exports began to fail and, therefore, Compare took up the supply of raw materials to England at cheaper rates to augment their revenue. By the second half of eighteen century India became a raw material supplier at the rate fixed by the Britishers according to their interests…finished goods produced in European Countries.”(Usha Rani,B.Bansal).
This proofs the fact that British used force to get lower rates for their raw materials’ via leading to higher returns in their pocket. This document was so interesting it described everything in detail of the high and low times of dealing between Indian and Britishers. For example, English factors was able to pressure Indian factors in Indian in terms of tariff and authority on cotton goods from both manufactures.
This jaw dropping statement is mentioned in “Industries in India during 18th and 19th Century.”, ” the imposition of a heavy tariff on Indian cotton and cotton goods in England, exemption of duty on British staples imported in India, and raising of duties on Indian goods from time to time…British Parliament for removal of invidious duties which discouraged and repressed Indian industries”..”(Usha Rani,B.Bansal). This shows that the Great Britain was not the only country who was the root of the first industrial revolution in the world.
Having raw material was great, but if there were not quicker way of manufacturing or transportation of these good Great Britain would not been able to grow at the rate of growth they originally did. They had made machines like spinning wheel and steam engine, which really embraced the idea of fast or mass production. Spinning Jenny and Water Frame were two useful invention that had boosted the function of the revolution. Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves, mainly aspect why it became famous was because the simple mechanics it used not to mention it was quite economical to use. Water Frame was invented by Richard Arkwright, it came to existence particular used for cotton spinning mill.
There was another inventor, named Samuel Crompton put forth the idea of both of these machines adding more to a better production of finished goods. This is mentioned in, “The Industrial Revolution”, “In 1767, James Hargreaves introduced the spinning jenny, which increased the amount of cotton yarn that could be spun. In 1769, Richard Arkwright introduced the water frame, which produced stronger warp yarn. A decade later in 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the jenny and the water frame into one machine called the mule. The mule could produce 300 times as much yarn as a person on a spinning wheel.”(Pearson Education).
The main aspect of the mule to control the weaving process and to be able to use different yarns. This process was explained in “Spinning Mule.”The spinning mule gave the spinner great control over the weaving process, many different types of yarn could be produced.” (Bellis). This article demonstrates the simplistic methods utilized during this era, and more importantly the efficiency of the fine machines that changed the world of the revolution.
Out of all these great advantages for Great Britain, during this time children unfortunately suffered the most. In order to survive the parents had to send their children to work no matter what gender or age they were. According to varies sources, if the child was able to do basic chores round the house they are commanded to work. As mentioned in “Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution.”,” children performed a variety of tasks that were auxiliary to their parents but critical to the family economy.
The family’s household needs determined the family’s supply of labor and “the interdependence of work and residence, of household labor needs, subsidence requirements, and family relationships constituted the ‘family economy’.” (Economic History Services). This was brutal because many of these factory jobs the working conditions were very base, aside from that the use of profanity. As described in, “Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution.”, ” Charles Dickens called these places of work the “dark satanic mills” and E. P. Thompson described them as “places of sexual license, foul language, cruelty, violent accidents, and alien manners”.( Economic History Services)
These kids go to work and get confused all their day or maybe even disgusted, but yet they were not able to quit because the family will not be able to survive. Perhaps these are reasons why we have child labor rules and regulations in this day and age. As mentioned in Child Labor, “The manufacturers begin to employ children rarely of five years, often of six, very often of seven, usually eight to nine years, (and) the working day often lasted fourteen to sixteen hours exclusive of meals and intervals.”(Stearman)
Since Great Britain was one of the best countries in mass production and expending their business. Countries in all around the world learned from them. As mentioned in Globalization: A Reference Handbook,” British power was its transition to an industrial economy. British’s lead in the Industrial Revolution gave it a political and economic advantage over other nation-states.
The Industrial Revolution is also the catalyst that gave rise to the modern era of globalization.”( Barbara) Another reason why many countries around the world respect Britain was because they realized that oil would be better to be used instead of coal. Oil used much less space to be stored. As mentioned in Globalization: A Reference Handbook,” Following coal, oil became the dominant fuel.
The use of oil became widespread when Britain realized that oil was a much more efficient fuel for powering its navy during World War I…spread quickly throughout the British Empire, Europe, and space dimension between nations-states and their colonies”( Barbara). British empire was like a role model for the rest of the revolutions which came after their revolution.
The British industrial revolution in the end was not just about the materialist thing in life or the amount of revenue. It brought a better way for living for everyone, even for the average factory worker. As Explained in “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England.” , “The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was revolutionary because it changed — revolutionized — the productive capacity of England, Europe and United States. But the revolution was something more than just new machines, smoke-belching factories, increased productivity and an increased standard of living.” (Kreis)
All in all the industrial revolution has played numerous significant roles in the development of the world, especially to surrounding counties. This was make possible be the geographic conditions, such as the accessible water. In addition to having a tremendous amount of positive impacts, it also had a few negatives, which can be seen in regards to child labor.
“Geographic Background and Concepts: The Industrial Revolution.” Reading.Www.primohistory.com. Primohistory. Web. Bansal, Usha Rani (Department of History, Banaras Hindu University), and B. B. Bansal. (Department of Engineering, Banaras Hindu University), “Industries in India during 18th and 19th Century.”Indian Journal Of History of Science 19.(3) (1984): 215-23. “The Industrial Revolution ” The West: Encounters & Transformations, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Pearson Education, The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1850. Web. (chapter summary;20) Bellis, Mary. “Spinning Mule.” About.com Inventors.
“Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution.” Economic History Services. EH.net, 2 Feb. 2010. Ervin, Justin, and Zachary A. Smith. Globalization: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. 12. Print. Stearman, Kaye. Child Labor. Chicago, IL: Raintree, 2004. Print. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization: A Brief History. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2002. Print. “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England.” Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. (Steven Kreis)