Industrial revolution

Period of rapid growth in machine-made goods People began inventing machines to make goods and supply power Began in Great Britain Factors that started the industrial revolution Transportation Natural resources Entrepreneurs Investment capital Labor supply Markets Factors affected by the industrial revolution Farming Way of life Inventions Industrial growth Farming Europe’s growing population was creating a need for more food. To meet this need, farmers began looking for ways to grow more and better crops Seed drill- by Jethro Tull This device made it possible to plant seeds in straight rows and at certain depths. As a result, more seeds grew into plants Industrial Growth Began with textiles or cloth products With new machines, workers produced more cloth causing the fall of cloth price The textile industry Water frame- invented by Richard Arkwright in 1769 Water powered spinning machine This machine could produce dozens of threads at one time Spinning jenny- by James Hargreaves Made thread quickly Other inventions Most early machines ran on waterpower. Thus, factories had to be located by rivers Steam power increased the demand for coal and iron, which were needed to make machinery New inventions improved transportation and communication

Steam engine- built by a Scot named James Watt in 1760s Powered riverboats and trains, speeding up transportation Bessemer furnace- named after an Englishman, Henry Bessemer Cheap way to convert iron into steel, which is stronger This invention lead to the growth of the steel industry Telegraph- by Samuel Morse Instead of sending a note by boat or train, people could go to a telegraph office and instantly send a message over long distance Made communication faster Cotton gin- by Eli Whitney is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation

The Factory System Factory- buildings in which machines were housed Factory work was long, tiring, and dangerous. Factory workers worked for 12 hours or more a day, six days a week. Factory conditions were miserable and unsafe. The air was thick with dust, and large machines were dangerous and caused many injuries Capitalism- individuals own most businesses and resources. People invest money in businesses in the hope of making profit. Changes in Society

Cities grew rapidly; they became dirty, noisy, and crowded. Many workers remained poor. They often had to live crammed together in shabby, unsafe apartments causing diseases to spread rapidly People worked to have laws passed improving wages and factory conditions. Suffragettes- women who campaigned to have the right to vote. They won their right to vote in 1928 WORLD WAR I

Causes of War Nationalism- devotion and loyalty to one’s country Competition for land, resources, and power New weaponry; stronger armed forces- militarism Alliances- an agreement between countries Triple Alliance Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary Triple Entente France, Great Britain, and Russia The Spark for War On June 28, 2014, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian assassin, shot and killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand- the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. After the incidents, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia

Central Powers- Austria-Hungary and Germany Allied Powers- Great Britain, Serbia, Russia, and France War and Victory Strategy- a plan for fighting a battle or war Trench warfare- is a style of fighting in which each sides fights from deep ditches, or trenches, dug into the ground Soldiers in the trenches faced great suffering

German U-boats- tried to break the British blockade and sink ships carrying supplies to Great Britain Weapons used Machine guns- cuts down soldiers as they tried to move forward Poison gas- blinded soldiers in the trenches Tank- used by British to break through enemies

The Allies win For 3 years, the war was a stalemate –neither side could defeat the other In early 1917, German U-boats began attacking American ships carrying supplies to Britain. Thus causing the U.S. to enter the war on the side of the Allies. Russians pulled out of the war

In the fall of 1918, the Central Powers surrendered making the Allied Powers victorious

The War’s End The war came to an end on November 11, 1918. More than 8.5 million were killed and at least 20 million were wounded The United States, led by President Woodrow Wilson, wanted a just peace. He did not want harsh peace terms that might anger the losing countries and lead to future conflict

Other Allied leaders wanted to punish Germany for they believe that Germany started the war and weakening it will prevent future wars Versailles- leaders from the Allied nations met there to debate the terms of peace for the Central Powers Treaty of Versailles- was the final peace settlement of World War I Forced Germany to accept the blame for starting the war

Germany had to pay billions of dollars for damages caused during the war

A New Europe Vladimir Lenin- took over Russia’s government and established a Communist government Encouraged Russian workers to support his new Communist government Communism- a political system in which the government owns all property and controls all aspects of life in a country

Altered borders by World War I Austria and Hungary became separate countries Poland and Czechoslovakia gained their independence Serbia + Bosnia and Herzegovina + other Balkan states = Yugoslavia Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania became independent of Russia