Until the 1600’s farmers used public lands to graze cattle and sheep. Then these lands started to be enclosed, or fenced off, into individual plots This is called the Enclosure Movement. This benefited richer landowners, who added to their lands, but the smaller landowner was forced to become tenant farmers or had to move into the cities. A tenant farmer is one who works on another’s land and gives a percentage to the landowner. (소작농)
Jethro TullJethro Tull was a landowner and he was worried about the amount of seed that was being wasted when seeds were hand-scattered. Wasted seeds didn’t grow and lost the farmer money. Seed Drill – Tull invented a seed drill to help plant seeds in straight rows. He also invented a horse-drawn hoe to dig up weeds between the rows and break up soil before planting.
Charles “Turnip” Townshend copied a Dutch method of crop rotation, to add nutrients to the soil. he would plant wheat one year and turnips the next. Before that people had let the land lay fallow (or unused) for a season or grow clover on it to add nutrients. Without these nutrients the top soil will be overused and blow away.
This creates desertification in areas without much rain. The American Jethro Wood replaced the wooded plow (쟁기) with an iron one and he invented a replaceable blade. This made it easier to plow and made farming more productive, since a iron plow could cut deeper into the soil. However, this plow was expensive. The expenses involved in more modern farming made it difficult for poorer farmers to compete.
Many were forced off the land and created a large labor force in the cities. The technological innovations of this agricultural revolution contributed to the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, since they had the land, capital and labor needed there. These three things are called Factors of Production by Economists. Land isn’t just land. It can include anything that grows on the ground, like corn. It can include anything that is found under the ground, like oil or gold. It can include things that are found in the air, like birds, and found in the sea, like fish. These things are called natural resources.
They can be renewable, like potatoes or pork, or non-renewable, like fossil fuels. Labor is the human factor of the Industrial Revolution. It includes both the physical and mental contribution of the workforce to production. Capital is the third factor of productivity. Capital includes moneys that are needed to run a company, and these often come from investment, such as stock markets. There is also physical capital, which is the equipment you need to run a company. Human capital is also needed.
Does a country invest in the future of its country, by providing health care, education and other services? Lastly, capital will include infrastructure, like roads, sewage, water supply, electricity. There is a fourth factor of production as well, which is called Entrepreneurship(기업가정신). This is involves someone coming up with an idea and taking a risk. In capitalism, there is no guaranteed success. There is a proverb: “Necessity is the mother of invention.” What does this mean? How is it related to the Industrial Revolution?
MechanizationWith Industrialization of the textile industry, Britain became the world leader in fabric. The first step in this process of mechanization was the invention of the flying shuttle by John Kay. These created cloth so fast they ran out of thread. Because of this shortage of thread, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which could produce thread eight times faster than previous machines. Richard Arkwright invented a way to drive a machine using waterpower. Because of this many factories started to be built near rivers.
This in turn led to an increase in water pollution. In these factories, workers would have to work a certain amount of hours. This factory system would have its origins in the spinning mills that helped create the British fabric industry. Edmund Cartwright then invented a water-powered loom, that could weave as much cloth as 200 hand-loomed operators. Each inventions created a new need, and other inventors came along to solve these new problems. Eli Whitney wanted to make it easier to remove seeds from cotton.
These seeds could destroy machines in factories, so entrepreneurs were reluctant to use cotton.Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. Because of this the American southern states started growing more cotton, and used slaves to pick it So inventions can have a positive as well as negative impact on the world. Think of the impact that some recent inventions has had on the world. Factories were often near water, but this was sometimes a problem, since natural resources were far away. So inventors, like James Watt, solved this problem by building the modern steam engine. Steam soon replaced water as an energy source.
Unfortunately, many steam engines were made of cheap iron and this couldn’t withstand the pressure put on it by the steam, and they would explode. Steel, and iron alloy, was much stronger, and William Kelly and Henry Bessemer helped develop a cheaper way to produce steel, which today is called the Bessemer Process. From coal, we got a gas which London started to burn in street lamps in the 1810s. This gas is called a by-product.
By the 1859s most big cities had gas lights in the West. This helped change the way people used their days and nights. Because of this light, factories started working 24 hours a day, and this created shifts of workers. Another industry that became important was the rubber industry, but the rubber was really too sticky to use, until Charles Goodyear discovered a process which made it less sticky. This process is called vulcanization.
Because of this we have rubber tires today in cars. Transportation was also affected by the Industrial Revolution. Stone topped roadways and canals were built to help materials get to factories and also to help get products to stores more quickly, in some cases before they could spoil. The steam engine was taken by George Stephenson and added to an engine which then ran on rails. Because of this we now have trains. Robert Fulton took the steam engine and put it in boats, creating the steam ship, called the Clermont.
This were able to run agains the current of rivers and move in the ocean even when there was no wind. Samuel Cunard then started providing a regular service of sailing steam-powered shops across the Atlantic Ocean, and this cut the sailing time in half, to only 17 days. Scientists understood that magnetism and electricity were connected. The Italian scientist Alessandro Volta built the first battery, and in the 1820s Andre Ampere of France worked out the principles governing the magnetic effect of electricity. Samuel Morse put this work to practical use when he invented a system which sent messages across a wire using a series of dots and dashes.
This system is called Morse code, and led to the invention of the telegraph in 1844. Britain had and advantage over other countries when it came to the Industrial Revolution. France introduced a tariff which was designed to encourage the building of railroads. Germany took until the 1870s to approach British production. The united states had abundant natural resources and land, and was able to be more successful than Germany and France. In1869 the USA finished the Transcontinental Railroad. This linked the East Coast to the West Coast.