The Industrial Revolution was a time of greatness for some and for others difficult. As a result of this revolution, many demands for better working conditions and protection for workers arose. The government and the union both began to act upon these demands for workers. Some reforms they created include the Health and Morals Act of 1802 and the Factory Act of 1833. Also, many people got involved and started stating their opinions on changes that England should make to their governement and political views.
This was how the different “evils” of the Industrial Revolution were addressed. The Health and Morals Act of 1802 and the Factory Act of 1833 were reforms created by the government and the union of England. These reforms mostly effected child labor in England. The excerpts in Document #3 and Document #4, set a minimum age of employment (9), how long children under fourteen could work in a day (12 hours).
Also, improved working conditions for children by not allowing people under the age of eighteen to work with machinery during the night. Lastly, they would not be allowed to work over sixty-nine hours a week. In order to enforce these new acts, inspectors would be sent to the work sites to make sure these acts were being carried out. It was known that most workplaces abused their child workers by underpaying and overworking them and they wouldn’t even realize it. These acts were established to shine a light on the “evil” working conditions and child labor abuse. People in England also started expressing their ideas on how the government should run.
These people made sure it was their statements were made public by publishing their ideas in books, and petitions. These “people” included Adam Smith and the Chartist. Adam Smith put forth his idea of how the governement should have a role in the economy. According to Document #5, he believed they should be providing the “best possible consumer goods at the lowest possible prices”, this idea was expressed in The Wealth of Nations (1776). Another idea was presented by the Chartist in the form of a petition.
This petition was sent in 1838 to Parliment, which suggested two changes to Englands voting policy. According to Document #6, it suggested to allow every male of the lawful age to vote and when electing members of Parliment to host secret ballots. This was intended to give the poorer class a say among the high rankings by establishing lower prices and the right to vote. These documents expressed the “evils” of the government as a result of the Industrial Revolution. The political views of England were criticizied by many, expressing another form of “evil” of the Industrial Revolution.
Friedrich Engels expressed his hatred for capitalism in the Condition of the Working Class (1844). According to Document #7, Engels believes that capitalism exploits the weak & poor and that the capitalists take everything for themselves, leaving nothing for the weak. As a result of his hatred, Engels and Marx came up with a solution to the “evils” of capitalism in Communist Manifesto (1848). As stated in Document #8, Engels and Marx recommended a communist overthrow of all existing social conditions.
These ideas formed by Engels exposed another type of “evil” formed by the Industrial Revolution and addressed it and a solution. The Industrial Revolution was diffucult for some. This revolution resulted in many reforms demanded by workers. The government and the union both acted upon these demands the workers proposed. Also many people put their ideas forward on changes that England should make to their government and their poltical views. The changes present addressed the “evils” of the Industrial Revolution.