Industrial Revolution

The term was first used by Arnold Toynbee in 1882. Industrial revolution is defined between 1750 and 1850 Two main characters: population growth 1750: 7milion people 13% live in towns 1900: 37 million people Huge increase 87%

Steady : constante In fits : avec des accoups

I. Workshop of the world

May 1851, great exhibition in crystal palace in London Peaceful competition /important event Britain produces more than half of iron/roal and cotton cloth of the world “Workshop of the world” Exhibition was a demonstration of British power. Britain mostly importing of raw materials and foods, and exporting manufactured products.

18511/2 people live in towns and cities 19013/4 people live in towns and cities

North England + Midlands (near Manchester) + Wales + Scotland are the most developed zone. Industries were implanted in the North and Midlands, South Wales and Scotland. The coalfields were located in the North and Midlands of England, North Bristol, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh...

The growing cities were located in the industrial areas. The major docks were Hull, Liverpool, Bristol, London which were near the industrial areas and big town. Transition between manual labor draft-animal based economy and machine-based manufacturing. Industrialization was an interchangeable part = mass reproductions of part Most of the innovations concern the textile industry. Before the textile was done on wool, individual artisans on their own working machine.

Early decades 9th: Britain dominant in the textile in the world The major change was “replacement of organic fuels based on wood and fossil fuel based on coal. To get the coal, mines have to be built and they became more efficient with steam-engines (enable the shafts to be made deeper).

In 1775: Watt’ first efficient steam engine This also had an effect on agricultureBritish agricultural revolution: producing more for less money (mechanical seeder, iron plough (1730), help the famer to be more efficient in field.)

II. Industries

A- Cottage industry These industries were mainly on the textile. Before the industrial revolution there was a Cottage industry in the 18th century. Individual artisans at that time used spinning wheel (rouet) & handloom (métier à tisser). To develop these techniques they needed entrepreneurs and one of the famous one was Richard Arkwright. →Cottonopolis (Liverpool)

B- Metal industry

Coal changed completely the way workers worked. The development of coal mines results in the used of steam machines. It also helped developed mechanical sector.(Plough = Charrue (1730))

C- Facilitating Transportation * Canals * Roads (turnpike roads) * Railways There was a railway mania: popularity of railways & their development. In 1833 there were 42 miles of railways. And in 1843, so ten years later there were 105 miles long railways.

* Railways * Canals * Roads (more sophisticated) Move the product more quickly and more cheaply.

Railway mania 1830ies 1833: Mileage of lines opened was 42miles (1=1,6km) 1843: 105miles The first line was Stockton – Darlington in 1825. From 1830, railway began to develop hugely and the line Manchester – Liverpool was created. Roads were also improved, in 1816, Bristol by John Mac Adam ”macadmised”. We would travel by carts (charrettes) and if you got money by stage coaches (diligences).

D- Population hebled (triple)

Men: * 1750: 31% * 1900: 45%

Women: * 1750: 33% * 1900: 48%

Death of children: * 1750: 65% * 1900: 15%

Population in general: * 2/6million since the Romans * 21million in 1851 * 37million in 1901

* 1830-1850: Development of urban areas * 1851: More people living in the city than in the countryside.