The Industrial revolution began in the early 1800s. The industrial revolution could not have happened if the agricultural revolution had not preceded it. During the Agricultural Revolution several inventions that reduced the need for man power were invented. Two of those inventions were the Jethro Tull seeding drill and the cotton gin. The seeding drill planted seeds in rows which made the crops easier to manage and harvest. The cotton gin was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, it took the seeds out of the cotton.
The cotton gin made it so that the work that previously needed to be done by fifty men could now be done by one. An idea of the agricultural revolution was crop rotation. Crop rotation was switching the crops into different fields each year which allowed farmers to produce 25 % more crops and more food means more population up. During the agricultural revolution population went up and less people were needed to work on the farms. There were a lot of people that needed jobs but there were not a lot of jobs for people on farms so the people turned to the cities.
The time when people went into the cities looking for jobs which caused the populations of the cities to at least double was called urbanization. During urbanization the city of Manchester in the United kingdom grew from 50,000 people to 500,00 people, this rapid increase of population took place during an extremely short period of time.
The United Kingdom became the place where the industrial revolution was born. It happened here because the UK had land, labor, and wealth. Factories arose first in the UK and then all over Europe. Since there were factories everywhere, there were plenty of jobs for the people. Even though the factories did provide jobs for the people they were not good jobs. People started working as young as the age of six.
The average work day was 14-16 hours, and that’s a lot of working hours, especially for a young child. Inside the factories the conditions were absolutely dreadful. The air was full of dust and other things that made it practically unbreathable, the machines were dangerous and often took a persons limbs or injured them in other ways.
Because the work days were so long and the workers were practically on their feet the entire day people became deformed and had problems with their legs. Despite all the hard labor and dangers of the work place the workers were still paid next to nothing. Eventually working conditions did improve. One of the things that helped improve conditions were unions. Unions were when all of the workers got together to get things that they wanted, they mainly used collective bargaining to get what they wanted.
Another thing that helped improve working conditions were legislative reforms. Legislative reforms helped improve working conditions because they regulated and limited several things such as how old you had to be before you could work, how many hours you could work, and how much you got paid. The government also made sure that the factories were safe for people to be working in so that people did not get hurt by the machines so often. Another thing that changed during the Industrial Revolution was public education.
Horace Mann made public education free. It is important that we have free public education because we live in a democratic society and people have to be educated to make wise decisions when they are voting. There were also some more positive effects of all these factories. People began to dress better than they had before and they owned more possessions because the machines were able to make things that they wanted in larger quantities much faster than if they were hand made. People also had money to purchase things that they desired. VARIOUS ECONOMIES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Laissez Faire translates to “let do.”
The economy called laissez fair had no governmental controls over the economy. In Laissez Faire free trade was allowed which made for a strong natural economy. Adam Smith was a Laissez Faire economist he wrote “Wealth of Nations,” and his ideas became the basis for capitalism.
Capitalism was an economic system in which money was invested in business ventures with the goal of making a profit. The Laissez Faire economists believed that government controls would ruin the economy. Socialism was the economic system in which the means of production are owned by the public to benefit all equality. Karl Marx was a radical socialist that wrote “The communist Manifest.”
He believed that owners were the “haves” because they had the money and that the workers were the “have nots” because they did not have much money. Marx saw this as unfair. He saw history as a class warfare and an overflow of the working class. Communism was extreme socialism, when all of the means of production were owned and run by the government and the wealth was distributed equally among the people. Over all the industrial revolution increased the national income, and improved living and working conditions of people all over.