5) The lymphatic system involves which of the following organs? E) A, B, andAnswer E7) In the inflammatory response, the absence of which of the following would prevent all the others from happening? D) release of histamineAnswer: D10) Inflammatory responses may include all of the following except C) reduced permeability of blood vessels to conserve plasma. Answer: C12) A bacterium entering the body through a small cut in the skin will do which of the following? E) activate a group of proteins called complementAnswer: E15) What are antigens?D) foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies Answer: D21) When would B cells produce effector cells?A) between 0 and 7 daysAnswer: A
22) When would memory cells be produced?E) both A and CAnswer: E27) The MHC is important inE) both A and DAnswer: E29) In which of the following situations will helper T cells be activated? A) when an antigen is displayed by a dendritic cellAnswer: AA. cytotoxic T cellsB. natural killer cellsC. helper T cellsD. macrophagesE. B cells31) These cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity and destroy virally infected cells. Answer: ATopic: Concept 43.3Skill: Knowledge32) These cells have a function that is similar to the function of dendriticcells. Answer: DTopic: Concept 43.3Skill: Knowledge33) These cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, and they respond to class I MHC molecule-antigen complexes. Answer: ATopic: Concept 43.3Skill: Knowledge34) These cells are involved in innate immunity, and a person lacking these cells may have a higher than normal chance of developing malignant tumors. Answer: B36) Which of the following is a pathway that would lead to the activation of cytotoxic T cells? B) body cell becomes infected with a virus → synthesis of new viral proteins → class I MHC molecule-antigen complex displayed on cell surface Answer: B
38) The following events occur when a mammalian immune system first encounters a pathogen. Place them in correct sequence and then choose the answer that indicates that sequence. I. Pathogen is destroyed.
II. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies.III. Antigenic determinants from pathogen bind to antigen receptors on lymphocytes. IV. Lymphocytes specific to antigenic determinants from pathogen become numerous. V. Only memory cells remain.
E) III, IV, II, I, VAnswer: E39) Which cell type interacts with both the humoral and cell-mediated immune pathways? E) helper T cellsAnswer: E42) CD4 and CD8 are proteinsD) that are present on the surface of T cells where they enhance cellular interaction. Answer: D45) B cells interacting with helper T cells are stimulated to differentiate when E) helper T cells release cytokines.Answer: E51) Which of the following statements about humoral immunity is correct? D) It is mounted by lymphocytes that have matured in the bone marrow. Answer: D57) The successful development of a vaccine to be used against a pathogen A) is dependent on the surface antigens of the pathogen not changing. Answer: A58) What would be the major concern for an individual with type A blood who receives a transfusion of type B blood? B) the antibodies in the serum of the recipientAnswer: B59) A transfusion of type A blood given to a person who has type O blood would result in which of the following? B) the recipient’s anti-A antibodies clumping the donated red blood cells Answer: B
60) In which of the cases could the mother exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus? A) case 1 onlyAnswer: A
61) In which of the cases would the mother not exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus? C) cases 2 and 3 onlyAnswer: C
62) In which of the cases would the precaution likely be taken to give the mother anti-Rh antibodies before delivering her baby? A) case 1 onlyAnswer: A65) An immune response to a tissue graft will differ from an immune response to a bacterium because A) MHC molecules of the host may stimulate rejection of the graft tissue. Answer: A10) What is the mode of action of aspirin and ibuprofen?A) They inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins.Answer: A20) Hormones from the hypothalamus affect the release of all of the following except B) oxytocin.Answer: B28) Prolactin stimulates mammary gland growth and development in mammals andregulates salt and water balance in freshwater fish. Many scientists think that this wide range of functions indicates which of the following? C) Prolactin is an evolutionary conserved hormone.
Answer: C33) One reason a person might be severely overweight is due to A) an undersecretion of thyroxine.Answer: A32) Which of the following endocrine disorders is not correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland? C) cretinism and adrenal medullaAnswer: C37) Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity? D) pancreasAnswer: D51) Melatonin has been found to participate in all of the following except E) calcium deposition in bone.Answer: E
2) Which of the following is associated with the evolution of a central nervous system? B) bilateral symmetryAnswer: B4) Where is the most likely location of a group of nerve cell bodies known as a ganglion? B) in the peripheral nervous systemAnswer: B5) The general functions of the nervous system include which of the following? I. integrationII. motor outputIII. sensory inputE) I, II, and IIIAnswer: E11) Neurons at rest are not at the equilibrium potential for K+ because the cell membrane is B) slightly permeable to Na+.Answer: B
16) Which of the following is a correct statement about a resting neuron? D)The membrane potential is more negative than the threshold potential. Answer: D17) Which of following is a true statement about the threshold potential of a membrane? D) It is the depolarization that is needed to generate an action potential. Answer: D20) After an action potential, the resting potential is restored by B) the opening of voltage-sensitive potassium channels and the closing of sodium activation gates. Answer: B21) Repolarization of the membrane of a neuron after an action potential is a consequence of which of the following? I. calcium channels openingII. Na+ channels inactivatingIII. K+ channels openingE) II and III onlyAnswer: E23) The membrane is unable to respond to any further stimulation, regardless of intensity. Answer: DTopic: Concept 48.3Skill: Comprehension24) The sodium gates open.Answer: ATopic: Concept 48.3Skill: Comprehension25) The threshold potential is reached.Answer: ATopic: Concept 48.3Skill: Comprehension26) Repolarization occurs, sodium gates close, and some potassium gates reopen. Answer: C27) The membrane is at resting potential.Answer: E31) Where do synaptic vesicles discharge their contents by exocytosis? E) presynaptic membraneAnswer: E48) Neurotransmitters affect postsynaptic cells byE) all of the aboveAnswer: E49) What is the main neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic system? A) acetylcholineAnswer: A51) a neuropeptide that functions as a natural analgesicAnswer: CTopic: Concept 48.4Skill: Knowledge52) an amino acid that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain Answer: E