Immigration to the USA

Immigration has occasioned cultural dynamism and constant increased population in America for decades. Social, economic and political immigration issues have elicited controversy pertaining to religion, ethnicity, monetary benefits, settlement trends, job expansion, environmental consequences, vertical social dynamism impacts, criminal trends, nationality, political alliances, work tradition and morality. The USA in 2006 admitted more lawful immigrants to be permanent inhabitants? thirty seven and half million, than all other world nations.

More lawful migrants were accepted into the USA between 1991 and 2000, ten to eleven million, than ever before. The last decade saw the admission of ten million lawful immigrants representing a 33% (32 million) population growth. The period between 1901 and 1910 witnessed admission of 8. 8 million migrants translating to a 1% (16 million) annual population growth. In 1910, almost fifteen percent of the American population was -overseas-born; 1999 figures were close to 10 percent (Sotelo, 2003, p. 12). Ethnic and racial composition of USA is being revised.

Twenty eight million, ten percent proportion, initial-generation US immigrants were present in 2000. The figure was fourteen percent in 1907. Lawful immigrants presently stand at a million each year with 600,000 being of the Change of Status category- the already resident in USA. The US had a seventy six million population in 1900; Hispanics numbered about half a million. It is projected that a quarter of total population in USA will be Hispanics as at 2050 largely owing to influx of Latin American migrants. Currently, over 37 million lawful immigrants reside in USA.

Unlawful immigration yearly figures are currently between 700,000 to one and a half million. This number joins the 12-20 million unlawful immigrants already in the USA. Latin America produced fifty eight percent of immigrants from 2000 to 2005. Immigration of Muslims into USA is increasing: the year 2005 witnessed the permanent admission of more Muslim immigrants (96,000) into the USA than ever before (Carrion, 2004, p. 17). Up to 1930s majority of lawful immigrants were male. This trend was reversed in the 1990s when females comprised more than fifty percent of lawful immigrants.

Current immigrants are younger compared to Native Americans mainly comprising of the 15-34 age group. Migrants are less probably divorced and more probably married compared to same-age Native Americans. Immigrants more often than not settle in areas occupied by people of similar origins. Current immigrants mostly reside in the states of California, Florida, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Illinois. These states have high overseas-born populations (forty four percent), and they held seventy five percent of total overseas-born residents as at 2000.

The USA had a population growth of two million and eight hundred thousand from 2004 to 2005. More than one and a quarter million immigrants gained permanent US citizenship in 2006. The year 1987 saw the granting of 601, 516 immigrants permanent-residence statuses whereas 2005 witnessed the admission of 1,122, 373 immigrants (MacLaughlin, 2008, p. 41). If present birth figures and immigration frequencies are kept constant, the population would double to close to six hundred million in seventy to eighty years. Forty five percent of under-five year olds have ethnic or racial minority origins.

It is predicted that America will have a billion inhabitants by 2100. Immigration is responsible for maintenance of population growth in America. A classic American female produces 1. 93 offspring which is below replacement rates needed to maintain sustainable population stability in the absence of immigration. USA population is projected to increase from two hundred and eighty one million in 2000 to three hundred and ninety seven million by 2050 factoring in immigration. Without immigration, the population would grow to merely three hundred and twenty eight million.

Absence of immigration coupled with current minimum procreation rates, would result in population decline (Gabaccia, 2007, p. 35). Hispanic US migrants are severely affected by the mortgage catastrophe with disproportionate foreclosure levels in immigrant settlements. As at 2008, 5 million unlawful immigrants held misleading residence mortgages. In addition, immigrants are detrimental to the US economy with regard to disparities between remitted taxes and state services obtained and income-lowering outcomes among semi-skilled native employees.

Positive impacts of immigration include increased productivity and reduced consumer costs for particular services and goods. Immigrants are estimated to annually contribute up to $10 million into the USA economy. it has been established that even though immigrants, particularly Latin American ones, pose financial cost as regards remitted taxes in relation to services obtained, immigration as a whole has an economic benefit owing to increased wages for skilled employees, reduced immigrant-produced services and commodity prices and increased efficiency plus reduced wages for particular capital investors.

A classic immigrant in his lifetime pays a total of $80,000 in excess of the receipts they obtain through state services (Carrion, 2004, p. 75). Recent laws related to immigration have called for heightened enforcement of current unlawful immigrant laws. This includes erecting a barricade alongside a little or the whole of the 3200 kilometer Mexico-USA border or developing a fresh guest employee program. A section of a boundary hedge was sanctioned in 2007.

Numerous cities have embraced refuge ordinances that prohibit police inquiry about a person’s immigration condition (MacLaughlin, 2008, p. 98). As at 2006, forty four percent of Americans felt immigration benefits America while forty five percent felt that America suffers owing to immigration. Unlawful immigrants are more disliked by Americans than lawful immigrants. Citizens are against the provision of government legal safeguards or services to unlawful immigrants.

Americans of African descent are more favorable to provision of state services to unlawful migrants and more concerned about job competition Reference Carrion, R (2004). U. S. A. immigration guide. New York: Sphinix Publishers Gabaccia, D (2007). Immigration and American diversity : a social and cultural history. New York: Wiley-Blackwell MacLaughlin, M (2008). USA Immigration & Orientation: Getting in and Getting Settled. London: Routledge Sotelo, P (2003). Gender and U. S. immigration: contemporary trends. California: University of California Press