Republic of Sudan which is the largest country in Africa has been roughly affected. The causes of bringing it to this condition are many but the main cause remains the civil conflict. Millions of people had to put their hands up from their lives either by fighting or by the conflict induced due to dearth. Beside this, another millions of them, according to an estimate, were dislodged from their homes. Sudanese government forces and (SPLM/A) the rebel Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army are accountable for all these circumstances and blamed for the resulting serious human rights violations. (House of Commons Library, 2004)
This civil war has made the condition of the entire country very miserable since the independence in 1956. There was a conflict between the Arab Muslim north and the black African, and mainly Christian or animist, south. (House of Commons Library, 2004) The conflict which took place between the Government and the SPLM/A got distorted recently due to which stress rose up in the western region of Darfur, which is situated in the west of Sudan and the area covered by it is the same size as that of France or Texas. This is where there is Muslim population but they are racially mixed and it’s not like one or two ethnic groups settled.
There are around 30 or more ethnic groups in Darfur, but these come in two main groups: Arab and African. Arab and the Arabic speaking nomads actually dwell in the north and south of the region, while the central part is occupied by those African farmers who are really inactive and who are strained, in the main, as of the three major African ethnic groups namely the Massaleit, Zaghawa and Fur. It is said that no part of the region has got homogeneity ethnically and usually movements and inter-marriages have taken place between these groups and social classes, which result in vague impression of ethnic differences.
Therefore it is said that the cause of the tension is the racist and ethnic dimensions with all the population defining themselves as Arab or Zurq (black). (House of Commons Library, 2004) As for many years there was a scene of intermittent clashes taking place between farming communities such as the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa, and nomadic groups, which led to a lot of destruction and prowling of homes beside this a lot of deaths too. According to Mr. Bertrand Ramcharan, the Acting United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
“It is clear that there is a reign of terror in Darfur. The current pattern of massive and gross human rights violations raises very serious concerns as to the survival, security and human dignity of those who have remained in Darfur”. (House of Commons Library, 2004) The portrayal of the Darfur conflict by the media has been as a struggle between ‘Arabs’ and ‘Africans’, which has flickered by the ethnic tension and competition over resources. However, as with many other conflicts in Sudan, for this also we cannot make one factor its root cause.
There is a complex set of interconnected factors which is driving the which include the past accusations and grievances, the perceptions of race in locals, the demands of people for fairness in sharing of power between different groups, the unfair allocation of economic resources and benefits, the disputes over right of entry’s to and charge over more and more scarce natural resources which are most commonly the land, livestock and water, the propagation of arms and the militarization of young people beside this, the lack of a democratic and self-governing process and there are many other governance issues which have led to the conflict.
All these factors, to mention again together have led to conflict it is not only one or sole cause leading to the destruction (Humanitarian Policy Group, 2006). The clash in Darfur began by the rebellious forces which are said to mainly comprise of Zaghawa, Fur and Masaalit tribes.
As mentioned earlier these revolting forces become visible in this that they have violated human rights and in all the humanitarian law. The identification of the colossal human rights violations which were alarming in the whole Darfur was carried out by the government of Sudan and its militia of whom many have committed war crimes and the crimes against humanity. (House of Commons Library, 2004)
There are many violations which have taken place in Dafur like the frequent attacks on civilians by Government of Sudan military and its proxy militia forces of which the chief ones are the Janjaweeds there has been a use of unequal force by the Government of Sudan and Janjaweed forces along with this complete impunity for the Janjaweed, who have been working in close synchronization with the forces of the Government of Sudan and above all the attacks that include killing, rape, plunder of the commodities like the Livestock, and also obliteration of property, including the most important, water sources (House of Commons Library, 2004)
Due to the lack of security measures undertaken there are ongoing violations from the side of the rebel forces in terms of human rights and humanitarian law’s contravention and the extent of these infringements cannot be identified. In a report in 2004, an estimate showed that around10, 000 to 30,000 people are assumed to have died in the conflict but again these figures may not be considered as a reliable tool. (Humanitarian Policy Group, 2006) Another estimate depicted that around 1.
3 million populations is assumed to have escaped from their homes and now are dislodge but within Sudan, and this population is actually from that total population and was pre-conflict. It was warned by the UN Secretary-General that the humanitarian crisis in Sudan requires instant action and insists are to be done by the world to the Sudanese authorities to neutralize and resolve the militia which are actually the ones to terrorize and frighten the population. (House of Commons Library, 2004) Humanitarian supplies should in fact be allowed.
Therefore regarding the Government of Sudan, it is clear that it is responsible for the humanitarian and human rights crises. (House of Commons Library, 2004) Another armed opposition stood against the government in 2003, namely the Sudan Liberation Army. The government was said to be not providing the desired protection. Soon after this another group emerged, the Justice and Equality Movement. Janjaweed’s were given free bridle and allowance by the Government of Sudan.
These were known as the one’s having guns on horseback, who began attacking villages, abducting people, raping, killing, destroying homes and many other destructions in terms of property, water sources, livestock and etc. (Amnesty International, 2003) Many times the villages next to Janjaweed’s were attacked by the government troops by this that bombing has been done on the villages, but this was actually before the attacks of Janjaweeds. The relations between the Janjawid and the armed forces of Sudan are irrefutable, the Janjaweeds now wear uniforms provided to them by the army.
(Amnesty International, 2003) According to Aisha Ali (from the village of Sasa, near Kornoy town in North, Darfur) “The Janjawids arrived and asked me to leave the place. They beat women and small children. They killed a little girl, Sara Bishara. She was two years old. She was knifed in her back. ” (Amnesty International, 2003) Many of the violations in Darfur are only targeted to women and girls. These violations included sexual slavery, abductions, torture and forced displacement.
Approximately every woman in Dafur is at risk of attack: pregnant women and girls as young as eight have not been out of danger. (savedarfur. org, 2007) UK has been very much concerned about this issue therefore made a contribution of sending one of the six observers which were requested from the European Union and it hoped that other contributing nations would also get their observers there. Full support for the monitor’s would be provided, as per the promise of the Government of Sudan and UK had provided ? 2 million to help the African Union team to set itself up.
Even the United Nations had deployed human rights monitors throughout Darfur with the financial support, given by the British. (House of Commons Library, 2004) The military has crumpled a number of times, at the border of chad, with the militia fighters. These as mentioned earlier also, are Janjaweeds who carried attacks in to Chad from Darfur just to steal the cattle and cause harassments with these acts and also did attacks to refugees too. For this there has been an increase in the number of patrol brought at the border. (House of Commons Library, 2004)
An incident once took place which led to the deaths of two Chadian military personnel same was wanted by the Chadian military who subsequent to an agreement with the Government of the Sudan, began a policy of chasing the Janjaweed back across the border and slotting in fight with the use of armored vehicles. (House of Commons Library, 2004) According to Mr. Hilary Benn, the Secretary of State for International Development, “The crisis in Darfur is the most serious humanitarian emergency in the world today”. (House of Commons Library, 2004)
This shows the criticality of this issue. As when we talk about the humanitarian needs then they are massive lets take Darfur, people there go through a very hungry season between May and September which is during the rains and before the harvest. Due to the conflicts many years pass without any harvest taking place. The long years of drought also lead to the failure of growing crops. On the other hand, when rains start in Darfur they bring in flash floods, thereby blocking the roads and increasing the peril of different diseases.
Now this can be termed as a severe crisis. Consequently dealing with all this requires deeds to be undertaken by everyone, including the Government of Sudan. (House of Commons Library, 2004) Conflict on Land Most Arab groups in Darfur do not have possession of land on the basis of the hakura (landholding) system which is the customary land tenure management system in Darfur. This is a system which dates back to pre-colonial times and was built by the British management which prearranged dars (homelands) to various settled and transhumant tribes.
There were many who were not allotted any land though access to water was there, like many Arab transhumant camel herding groups which lied especially in the North Darfur (Humanitarian Policy Group, 2006). When the conflict broke out in Darfur and there was a break down of good and co-operative relations, the landless Arab groups explored an opportunity to enlarge their access to land and water. This conflict as a result became or can be considered to a degree as a violent attack by landless tribal groups against groups with land.
The competition over vital livelihoods basis, had increasingly made the racial aspects implicit and because of this many people in Darfur perceived the violence in a racial framework. However, bigger, richer and more influential cattle herding Arab Baqqara tribes of South Darfur which include the Rizeiqat, the Ta’isha, the Ma’alia, the Habbaniya, the Beni Hussein and also part of the Beni Halba which as being tribes did not take part in brutal activities against the non-Arab groups. The tribe, Baqqara Rizeiqat, actually enjoys good trading associations with the Zaghawa and the Fur, and can easily be accessible to the land.
(Humanitarian Policy Group, 2006) No such effective effort has been made on Europe’s part though it has been completely failed to take any sort of step which has practically pressurized the Sudanese government to stop this regular war and crimes against humanity which are taking place because of the troops and Janjaweed militias which lie in the western Sudan. There have been another millions who have been strained from their homes and according to the latest update in 2007 there have been more than 200,000 who have died from the conflict (Grono, 2007)
According to Javier Solana, EU foreign policy chief, “The long-suffering people of Darfur need help – not next week, or next month, but today. The violence that has long terrorised the civilian population is persisting. Extreme human rights violations are continuing… consequently, the humanitarian situation is the worst on the planet. ” (International Crisis Group, 2007) A number of other European leaders have also talked on this issue. This government of Sudanese has not been sort of very somber in terms of negotiation regarding the talk done on peace as its main purpose is to simply wipe out the rebellions in Darfur.
This, it want it to be done at almost any cost, because like no one else this government also does not wish to split its power and wealth and share with them or anyone. The permit of Europeans would increase the costs of Khartoum’s inflexibility in a very large proportion then until and unless some significant costs are forced on it, the regime will carry on to go back on its commitments to deactivate the Janjaweed, implement cessation of hostilities and permit the exploitation of a more vigorous peacekeeping vigor. Khartoum, regardless of its vociferous, has got a whole history of countering to international pressure (Grono, 2007)
The condition of Darfur is deteriorating day by day and now is been dispersing to the neighboring Chad and the Central African Republic. These are the places where Khartoum is at the peak of his savageness and is robustly stimulating and motivating the rebellions. There has been a warning given by aid-agencies in Darfur, for improving the security levels and brining in some other security measures in order to protect the current relief operations (Grono, 2007) Violence and dread has been ruling over Darfur for many years.
There have been many futile efforts by many nations and no difference is been made to the increasing worst conditions in Darfur. (Fischer, 2007) Darfur is a humanitarian calamity: more than 200,000 dead, thousands tortured, 2. 6 million people displaced, and another thousand raped all this is due to the Sudanese Government’s war against its own people. Originally an anti-insurgency effort, the campaign quickly mutated into a killing and expulsion operation. (Fischer, 2007) A third of Sudan’s people are forced to leave their homes because the Janjaweed terror prevails there.
In order to overcome this long crisis period, perhaps history of its crisis are available and consistent and a dense support is required. The UN Security Council has made numerous efforts to disarm this militia, the Janjaweeds but still lack of Sudanese government’s cooperation has not made it possible for them. (Fischer, 2007) In November 2004, another peaceful solution came in when the government and rebellions signed a ceasefire and humanitarian agreement. For a short instant, there was a motive to hope that peace was at hand but no results are yet found. (Fischer, 2007)