Human-resource management (HRM) is an American concept of resource-oriented personnel management. The complexity of tasks is increasing so abruptly that an intelligent approach is only possible if the overall relational context is taken into account. This also requires of managers an ability to think in networks, that is, to include other domains and departments of the firm in the planning and execution of tasks.
The view of personnel as potential, as human capacity, and not merely as a cost factor - that is, as a potential that must be systematically planned, maintained, and developed - is central to HRM (Briscoe 2004). The key concepts of the HRM concept are: (1) Measures of personnel recruitment and development that are systematically interlinked, (2) HRM is locked into a firm's strategic and structural decisions, (3) Human resources is seen from the perspective of general management, not from the perspective of some functional sphere (e.
g. , personnel department, (4) Assembly-line management is incorporated into HR responsibility, (5) Employee influence (participation philosophy). These concepts entail new strategic goals for firms, with a view toward establishing as close a connection as possible between external change and organizational activities, and, over the long term, toward ensuring company survival.
Among these goals are: (1) growth of the firm, also internationally (especially in the automobile industry, data-processing firms, media firms, paint manufacturers); (2) a growing orientation toward the market and toward customers (especially in the service branches); (3) securing technical advantage over competitors (automobile and data processing industries); (4) improvement in organizational and individual flexibility (as a strategic goal by highly bureaucratized firms especially), (5) development of strategic knowledge, strengthening market-oriented and customer-oriented thinking.
The task of strategic human resource management is to derive, from in-firm strategies and business units strategies, personnel policy guidelines and measures to serve the strategic goals. Sexual harassment, a term coined in the 1970s, has existed a long time. It was in the 1970s that a consensus began to grow that such behavior was both morally and legally wrong. There are a number of ways in which sexual harassment policies can impede or facilitate investigation and fair disposal of harassment complaints. The following questions need to be addressed when dealing with harassment in workplace:
1. Does the institution have a policy dealing with sexual harassment? If so, become familiar with this policy and publicize it through brochures. Is there an informal procedure to help resolve complaints prior to bringing formal charges? 2. Individuals may want to rehearse what they want to say about their experiences with a friend. They may also want to take a friend with them when they discuss their experiences with their representative. The representative of the business should be asked the following questions:
* Will the complainant's name be used? * Will the harasser be notified about the charges immediately? * When and how will the complainant be notified about the way the investigation is progressing? 3. It is not necessary to have had repeated instances of sexual harassment in order to bring charges against an individual. 4. There are usually deadlines involved in institutional procedures for handling complaints. 5. A diary of all experiences with the harasser, witnesses present, copies of letters, et cetera, should be maintained.
Using a sexual harassment policy can be intimidating—this procedure takes time and involves considerable embarrassment and stress for those who have been harassed. Individuals may want to find out whether others in their institution have used these procedures and how they were treated in the process. Also, it is important to ask who conducts the investigation—a panel? Individuals may want to investigate whether there is anyone at their institution who can assist them in preparing their cases—for example, is there a women's center?