History of Medicine

• Medicine is both a science and art. • Science is knowledge of facts, phenomena, law, proximate causes gained and verified by exact observation. • About by organized experiments and correct thinking. 2nd READING PREHISTORIC MEDICINE We have no known evidence about what disease people suffered from, how they contacted the disease or how they manage injuries. WITH ACTION (MILEN and AYA) • Pre historic skulls have been found with holes bored into them. • Trepanation – carried out as early as 5,000 BC and was believed to relieve the victim of the effects of had injuries and let spirits out.

3RD READING The ART OF MEDICINE 3,000 BC – Medicine was already a flourishing art that accompanied the development of civilization in places like Sumer, Egypt, India and China. WITH ACTION (AYA, NICA, ANDREW) GREEKS: Thought of disease as an affliction sent by theirs gods and that the gods can cure them. IMHOTEP – chief counselor and minister of the Pharaoh Zoser as their first physician. WITH ACTION (arceo,jon,flong) • KANI ABOUT SURGERY, MAY PATIENT NA GINA-OPERAHAN. SOMETHING ANA ANG THOUGHT. SUMERIANS:

In the code of Hammurabi, a law stating that a doctor was to be held responsible for surgical errors and failures. Also, sesame oil was used for post-operative care of wounds. For nearly a thousand years (500 BC – 500 AD) the Grecian Temple of Ascelepius was one of the most famous healing centers where the sick were brought for healing. THE SCIENCE OF MEDICINE In Greece,(400BC) Hippocrates delineated medicine from philosophy and religion by remarkable case histories and vivid descriptions of diseases – making the practice more of a science than an art.

Theory of Four Humours: Illness will occur if one of these humours is out of balance. 1) Black bile 2) Yellow bile 3) Phlegm 4) Blood Aristotle – first great biologists. – foundation of comparative anatomy and embryology. Galen – value of anatomy and experimentation in medical practice. – Found out the brain controls the rest of the body through the nerves. – Father of experimental physiology Cosmas and Damian – Great charity to all and treated their patients to the best of their ability. – Proclaimed as saints. –

WITH ACTION (glenn, stephen,jon, bien) MIDDLE AGES – KANI ABOUT OUTBREAK ( – Outbreak of the bubonic plaque, which most people believed was a punishment from God. – Others would say it was caused by poison in the air. – Measles and small pox was described by Persian Rhazes ( best known Arabic contributor in Scientific Medicine) – In the city of Salerno, southern Italy, was the first organized medical school was established in 848 AD. – In 1200, Montpelier was known as the premier medical school in Europe. RENAISSANCE.

WITH ACTION (bien, magno, sherf) • WHILE THE NARRATOR NARATES, KAMO LANG BAHALA MG-ACT BASTA ABOUT DISCOVERIES CIA. ( • Paracelus – use of chemicals in medicine Fracastoro of Verona – a scholar whose interest in epidemic infection led to the publication of a great work. Dutchman Johannes Janssein – invented the microscope. William Harvey – described with great accuracy and detail circulation of blood in the human body. James Lind of Edinburgh – who recommended lemon juice for scurvy. Leopold Auenbrugger – the application and effects of percussion.

Mathew Dobson – presence of sugar in the urine of diabetic patients Willam Withering – discovered Digitalis 19th CENTURY Johannes Muller – raised physiology to a distinct science. Rudolf Virchow – originated the concept of the cell as the center of the pathological changes. 20th CENTURY German Erhlich – discovered the treatment for syphilis. Sir Alexander Fleming – discovered Penicillin. Goudfrey Hounsfield – invented the CT Scan. *these events and discoverie are great milestones in the history of medicine, a practice which ostensibly started as an art and evolved into a complicated science.