History of China

During the start, when the first settlers came to China, the Chinese have been an extraordinary civilization, from its philosophies to technologies. It has been ruled by Emperors who have tried to unite China. Those who were successful were usually blessed with a Dynasty which lasted for a while. The Chinese have prospered and suffered. The ancient history of China reflects the beauty of Chinese ancient culture and morality. With more than 5000 years of history, China has a wonderful culture and splendid civilization. (History of China)

China’s history is told in traditional historical records that take us back to the three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, enhanced by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is known as one of the world’s oldest continuous civilizations. From the oldest resident in China and the oldest dynasty, Xia dynasty, there have been millions of well-known people who made great contributions to the harmony, unity and growth of Chinese civilization.

They contain emperors such as, Hanwudi (Emperor of Han dynasty) and Li Shimin (Emperor of Tang Dynasty), famous scholars such as Confucius (Great Educator/Guru in Spring and Autumn period), and great scientists like Zhu Chongzhi and Zhangheng. It is their great contributions and efforts that made China appealing and pleasant today. (History of China) Chine has a continuous civilization and the world’s oldest people, consisting of states and cultures dating back more than six millennia.

China has the world’s longest continuously used written language system, and is the source of many major inventions, such as what the British scholar and biochemist Joseph Needham called the ‘’four great inventions of Ancient China’’, paper, the compass, gunpowder and printing. China’s cultural area of interest, historically, has spread across East Asia as a whole, with Chinese religion, customers and writing systems being taken to great extent by neighbours such as Japan, Korean and Vietnam. (China Facts and History) China, with a population of more than one billion people, is a country full of marketing potential. Having so many potential consumers, it usually gives out a positive attitude on how any product could reach its target audience.

Nonetheless with a country so rich in history and culture, there are many factors to be taken in account by marketers. Some of the most important and influential elements would be the monetary policy, currency system, market agreements and environmental factors of the country. (Overview of China's History) China’s business structure has been fluctuating from time to time. During 1976 to 1985 a ten year plan stressed improvement in economic management and a bigger role for private and collectively owned (as opposed to state-owned) enterprises.

They still continued to attract western technology and investment and did a program of incentives to increase agricultural production. New policies were introduced in 1984 which called for further delegation of economic planning and for growing reliance on market forces to figure out the prices of consumer goods. Since the early 1990s the government of China continued to ease controls on the economy. While taking a look at China’s history from a business structure, it is essential to check their economics background and other factors such as National Output, Labour, Communications, Commerce, Government and more.

During the 1990’s China’s business structure started improving. The annual gross domestic product (GDP) of china was about $544.6 billion. Agricultural outputs (which also includes some small-scale industries in rural areas,forestry and fishing) started increasing and accounted for about 24 percent of domestic income and industrial output (which includes manufacturing,mining, electricity generation, building and construction) accounted for 42 percent. China’s labour force is one of the important facts in their business structure, their labour force in 1996 was estimated at nearly 584 million people.

China has issues with unemployment and underemployment because of fast amount of population growth rate. About one-quarter of the populations was 15years of age or younger during the 1990s, therefore it was assured that a huge amount of young people will enter the labour force each year. (Overview of China's History) About 60 percent of their labour force consists of agricultural workers.

The circulation of commodities in China made a huge change in 1979, state-owned enterprises have been unbound to obtain few of their supplies and organize a part of their product on the market; extensive use of advertisement as a source of information has also been clear. Over the years the reorganization of commerce in urban centers, has brought about a rapid growth of collectively and individually owned businesses, such as restaurants, teahouses, inns, hairdressing establishments, photography studios, tailor shops, and all types of repair and maintenance services. (Overview of China's Marketing History) It is very complex to identify exactly when theTextile industry started.

Archaeological studies imply that the first textile, different from fur or skins sewn together was felt (non-woven) cloth created by compressing and condensing woollen fibers. It is believed that the locations where textile was first used are; Egypt, India, Turkey and China.

Ever since ancient years, China was a strong player in the textile market. Textile production in China from the earliest evidence were cocoon of bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, which happened to be found in Xia, Shanxi, which was dated around 5000 and 3000 BC. Around just about 4000 BC the first textile fragments were found in Yuyao, Zhejiang. Scraps of silk were found in Huzhou Zheijiang, which happened to be back to 27000 BC. (China's Textile and Clothing Industry)

Since 1949 textile and clothing has been one of China's traditional industries and has remained as one of the important industries in modern China. This industry has experienced serious reforms and reached high growth for a long period of time. China has turned into the world's largest exporter and producer of many products in this industry. Chinese firms concentrate on the low-end product markets. They are still very poor in management and marketing skills. Technologies in this industry are not yet advanced and profit margins are pretty low. (China's role in the Global Textile Industry)

Around 1979 China completely started its foreign trade, In 1979 China solved certain trade restrictions, paving the way for increases in the relatively small foreign investment and trade activity and by the early 1990s yearly exports totalled about $92 billion and imports about $104 billion. (Facts and History of China)

China’s success has been primarily due to manufacturing as a low-cost producer. This is qualified because of a combination of cheap labour, good infrastructure, relatively high productivity, favourable government policy and possibly undervalued exchange rate. (History of China)

5000 years have passed and the Chinese nation and society are welcoming much development in the 21st century. With the collective energy of 1.3 billion people, China will enter a new phase in the 21st century and create a miracle for it people and the world. (History of China)

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