History of Juvenile Justice System in America

The need for having such a justice system whereby the unruly youth of the nation could be governed, had been felt since long. Therefore, in the late 1800s, a new justice system by the name Juvenile Justice System, relating the rules and laws pertaining youth offenses and was introduced in the United States. With the promulgation of this new system, came the reformation of U. S. policies with regard to youthful offenders.

Ever since its inception, the system has progressed while taking into consideration some of the most important reforms focusing on safeguarding the rights of youth via ‘Due Process of Law’ and at the same time inculcating a feeling of hatred among the youth toward the institution of prison. This made the new juvenile justice system much more distinguishable from the justice system in adults. (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) Crimes the Youth May Be Arrested For The offenses and crimes for which the Juveniles in America may be arrested and are indexed by the OJJDP include: 1. The Violent Crimes

a) Aggravated assault b) Rape c) Robbery d) Homicide 2. The Property Crimes a) Larceny/Theft b) Auto theft c) Arson d) Burglary The Other Crimes that are not indexed by the OJJDP include: 1. Disorderly conduct 2. Drug abuse 3. Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) 4. Embezzlement 5. Forgery 6. Fraud 7. Gambling 8. Liquor law violations 9. Loitering especially during late night 10. Offenses against family and children 11. Probation violations 12. Prostitution 13. Sex offenses (excluding rape) 14. Simple assault 15. Stolen property possession 16. Suspicious behavior 17. Underage Drunkenness 18.

Weapons possession 19. Vagrancy 20. Vandalism And similar other offenses Status Offenses a. Curfew violations b. Incorrigibility (disobedience & defiance) c. Running away from home d. Truancy from school e. Underage alcohol consumption (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) The Youth Arrests Most of the crimes that the youth arrest is made upon include: 1. Curfew violations 2. Disorderly conduct 3. Drug a buse 4. Assault(simple) 5. Theft But from the statistics as compiled by the OJJDP, it is clear that the crime Theft is the most common among the youngsters and a cause of major youth arrests.

The below is the statistics collected in youth arrests from 1999 to 2000: From a total of 2,468,800 child arrests that were made in the United States in 1999, about 380,500 arrests were because of theft. Similarly from the total 2,369,400 arrest in 2000, nearly 363,500 were on account of the crime theft. However, the drug abuse violations in 1999 accounted for a total of 198,400 arrests so also a total of 203,900 arrests in the year 2000. Also in the Violent Crimes, a total of 103,900 arrests were made in 1999, while a total of 98,900 arrests were conducted in the year 2000.

Thus from the crime graph, it is evident that the arrest rates from 1999 to 2000 dropped by at least 5 percent. (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) The Gender Aspect From the results taken on the average, it was observed that the females were fewer than males in the commission of juvenile crimes. The juvenile arrest in females was 27% in 1999, and was 28% in 2000. Female juvenile crimes accounted for their involvement in: 1. Commercialized prostitution arrests (female juvenile arrests-54% in1999 & 55% in 2000) 2. Female embezzlement arrests (female juvenile arrests-48% in 1999 & 47% in 2000)

3. Female theft arrests (female juvenile arrests-36% in1999 & 37% in 2000) 4. Female runaway arrests (female juvenile arrests of 59% over a period from 1999 to 2000) Data showing Juvenile females least involvement a) Rape arrests: juvenile female arrests-2% in 1999. & 1% in 2000 b) Sex offense (excluding prostitution & rape): female juvenile arrests- 8% in 1999 & 7% in 2000. c) Gambling arrests: female juvenile arrests-4% over a period from 1999 to 2000. d) Robbery arrests: female juvenile arrests- 9% over a period from 1999 to 2000.

Note: The rate in female arrests during 1990s did not show extremes in the rise and drop which clearly distinguishes it from the male arrests during the same period of time. Instead the graph in the female juvenile arrests showed a gradual but steady rise. (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) The Race Aspect The race, especially in America, plays a definite role for the youth getting involved in various types of juvenile crimes. The report submitted by the OJJDP, throws light on the arrests made in the four different categories of race. These categories include: 1.

The white race (including Hispanic youth), 2. The black race 3. The American Indian race, and 4. The Asians. The study report shows the arrest-rate graph among various racial groups for each crime separately. The issue of the Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report Series published in 2001, and which revealed the crime data for 1999 read as: a) The White-race youth: 72% arrested, making up 79% of the youth population. b) The Black-race youth: 25% arrested, making up 16% of the youth population. c) The American Indian-race youth: 1% arrested, making up 1% of the youth population.

d) The Asian-race youth: 2% arrested, making up 4% of the juvenile population. (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) The Juvenile Arrest rates Differences in1999 The report, which showed racial differences in the arrests for 1999, included: 1. White-race youth arrests: 92% in DUI cases, and 16% in gambling, contributing 57% of juvenile violent crimes and 68% of weapons violations. 2. Black-race youth arrests: 81% in gambling, and 5% in DUI cases, contributing 41% to juvenile violent crimes and 30% to weapons violations. 3.

American Indian-race youth arrests: 3% in liquor law violation, and but not involved in embezzlement, gambling, or suspicion cases, contributing 1% to juvenile violent crimes and 1% to weapons violations. 4. Asian (American)-race youth arrests: 4% in runaway cases, and 1% in drug abuse cases, contributing to 2% of uvenile violent crimes and 2% to weapons violations. (Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) The Age Aspect According to the definition as presented by the OJJDP, all juveniles in the United States have been termed as youth below 18 years of age.

The analysis of OJJDP in 1999, described in National Report Series estimates 17% of the Juveniles out of the total youth arrests in the US. The juvenile crime statistics in the US youth arrests shows the below facts: 1. Youth under 15 years made up 32% of the juvenile arrests. 2. Youth between 15 and 17 years of age made up 68% of arrest. 3. Youth below 15 years arrested in 67% of arson cases and 51% of sex offense cases. 4. Youth between 15 and 17 years arrested in 97% DUI violations, and 94% in embezzlement. 5. Drug use, theft, simple assault crimes were the highest arrests.

(Juvenile Justice FYI, n. p. n. d. ) Summary To increase programs of delinquency prevention, a lot of hard works have been made. There is small confirmation, though, that any of these programs is really successful. To youths who appear to be on the brink of getting delinquents, there are a few programs present counseling services. To stay them away from situations in which criminal behavior is likely to occur, other programs draw youths into clubs and leisure centers in an effort. A lot of hard works have centered to develop the educational and work skills of youths in recent years.

There are programs planned to stop these people from doing future criminal acts for those young people who have already become delinquent. In an attempt to provide help for delinquent children, trial services are offered through juvenile courts. To provide treatment programs for offenders, the more progressive institutions for juveniles, counseling, education group therapy, work experiences. On the other hand, there are various other institutions provide little more than caring guardianship for juvenile delinquents. (Gibbons, Don C. , n. p. n. d. )

Cases concerning young people who have done offences or who need the protection and care of society, Juvenile court is a particular court that handles all these matters. There are several juvenile courts agreement with cases of criminal behavior and forget. The majority of cases of delinquency involve children who have violated the law or who are hard to manage. Children whose parents do not or can not be concerned for them properly, mostly these neglect cases involve. In Canada and the United States both have the wide juvenile court systems. (Kress, Jack M. , n. p. n. d. )