“Heslop states that “a political system is a set of recognized legal institutions that establish a government or a state. This definition is adopted by numerous scholars of the legal or constitutional arrangements of advanced political orders” (2019).” “A political system is also understood to be set of procedures of collaboration or as a subsystem of the societal structure interrelating with other non-political subsystems, such as the monetary system.” “This readdresses to the prominence of casual socio-political procedures and stresses the learning of political expansion.” “Political organizations are not the only institutions that form states, religion has played a major role in most states.” “Religion according to Nangbri is a social-cultural structure of elected behaviours and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, which relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.” “Nonetheless, there is no academic agreement over what exactly establishes a religion.” “This essay aims to compare and contrast the political systems and religions of Iran and Mexico and their roles in shaping the current state of these states.”
“Mexico is a country of southern North America and the third prime country in Latin America, after Brazil and Argentina.” “Mexican society is characterized by extremes of wealth and poverty, with a limited middle class wedged between an elite cadre of landowners and investors on the one hand and masses of rural and urban poor on the other.” “It is a federal republic with an executive president, a bicameral legislature, an independent judiciary, a system of checks and balances and competing political parties.” “Elections are more honest and competitive, power is being redistributed to a broader, popular base.” “The terms for eligibility for Mexican presidents are more demanding & totally different than those for Iranian president, a candidate must be Mexican by birth, have a mother or father who is Mexican by birth, must be at least 35 years old, and must have been resident in the country for at least a year prior to the election.”
“The candidate cannot be an official in a church or religious organisation (this is because religious officials are not allowed to speak in public), and cannot have been on military service in the 6 months earlier to the election.” “Mexico is one of the chief economic and political forces in Latin America.” “It has a dynamic industrial base, vast mineral resources, a wide-ranging service sector, and the world’s largest population of Spanish speakers.” “Mexicans may show reservations of their political front-runners and church pyramid, but never of Our Lady of Guadalupe.” “Almost five hundred years after the apparition, eighty-three percent of the inhabitants still identify themselves as Catholic, but the sum is decreasing, as supporters continuously abscond to evangelical audiences.” Algren (2016) concludes that:
“Catholicism arrived in Mexico with the conquistadors coming to plunder the country, but it took the vision of Mary in 1531 for the religion to take root.” “Historians say the Spanish cleverly substituted the Virgin for Tonantzin and employed her to evangelize the indigenous populations.” “That syncretism converted the masses, who went on to develop a unique form of Catholicism, in which rabid religiosity and popular piety are expressed, but the sacramental and social side of the faith are often ignored.”
“It’s hard to underestimate the religion’s influence in Mexican history, even though church and state were separated for most of the previous epoch and associations with the Vatican were only restored in 1992.” “Priests played prominent roles in Mexico’s past, too, although they are technically forbidden today from talking politics.” “Mexican independence was ignited by a parish priest: Miguel Hidalgo, who inspired an uprising with his cry of “¡Viva México!” (The Guardian 2016).”
“The church appreciated an honoured place in the newly self-governing Mexico, where only Catholics could be reckoned as citizens.” “But that ended with the upsurge of the liberals in the 1850s and native president Benito Juárez, whose reform laws seized church possessions, subordinated church courts to civilian authorities and banned priests from wearing religious clothing in the community.”
“The church retorted by supporting conformists’ efforts to bring in Austrian archduke Maximilian, backed by French forces, as emperor in 1863.” “He was captured and executed by liberal forces in 1867.”“This was a church that supported independence, then invited an empire to invade Mexico,” said Ilán Semo, political historian at the Jesuit-run Iberoamerican University.” “The Mexican revolution of 1910 brought about more conflict for the Catholic church, the country’s new leaders feared that religion would hold back progress, and imposed even stricter anti-clerical laws, such as a prohibition on preaching politics from the pulpit, prompting Pope Pius XI to write in a 1926 encyclical that priests were put in the same category as “criminals and the insane”.”
“In 1917, after the Mexican Revolution, the struggle for civil autonomy against religious domination was institutionalised in the Constitution, which stripped religious organisations of their legal status and denied them participation in public affairs.” “By establishing the right to secular, free and scientific-based education, post-revolutionary governments asserted the lay character of the state and limited religious beliefs to the private lives of the people.” “According to Fallaw (2016: 234):
“The place of the Church in a Catholic country after an anticlerical revolution profoundly shaped the process of state formation in Mexico.” “From the end of the Cristero War in 1929 until Manuel Ávila Camacho assumed the presidency in late 1940 and declared his faith, Mexico’s unresolved religious conflict agitated regional politics, impeded federal schooling, undermined agrarian reform, and flared into sporadic violence, ultimately frustrating the secular vision shared by Plutarco Elías Calles and Lázaro Cárdenas.”
“The Catholics initiated 120 hospices in the first century of the colonial era, some serving only Spaniards but others entirely for the natives.” “These hospitals for Indians were especially important since epidemics sickened and killed countless Indians after the conquest.”
“Iran, also named Persia, and publicly the Islamic Republic of Iran is a country in Western Asia.” “It is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE.” “Executive power in Iran is held by a president, who can be elected an unlimited number of 4 year terms, the only stipulation being that he cannot serve more than two terms consecutively.” “According to the constitution, presidents must be elected ‘from among religious and political personalities’, must be Iranian, must have ‘have administrative capacity and resourcefulness’, must be trustworthy and religious, and must believe in the important values of the Islamic republic and the authorized madhhab (the Islamic school of thought) of Iran (Jahanbakhsh (2003:233).” “Also, all presidential candidates must be vetted and approved by the Guardian Council.” “The president governs in association with a Council of Ministers, equivalent to the judiciary in the Mexico.” “This entails of eight vice-presidents and twenty-two ministers all of whom are chosen by the president and must be agreed by the Majlis (Iranian Parliament).” “A Supreme Leader also has some influence over appointments to the more important positions (defence, intelligence and the interior).”
“If politics is determined by religion in a religious society like Iran’s, then there must be a logical link between change in political discourse and shifts in religious discourse.” “In order to understand the former we need to know how and when the latter occurred.” “While the common perception is that since the reformists came to power in 1997 a new religious reform is also unfolding, the reality is that the political reform movement is one auspicious fruit of a religious intellectual reform movement already at work at least one decade prior to the 1997 political watershed.”
Religion plays a huge role in the socialization of society, Iran is a certified religious state, officially known as Islamic Republic of Iran. Leaders are chosen from religious and political parties unlike Mexico where candidates are not to officials in any religion. The executive power lies with the President Iran whilst in Mexico there’s a visible decentralisation of power. Mexico is a bicameral state, meaning it has two chambers and an independent judiciary. Iran has only one recognized religion which is Islam, the country’s constitution is allied with the laws of their prophet Allah. In Mexico a large percentage of the citizens identify themselves as Catholics, yet Catholic priests are forbidden from speaking publicly.
In conclusion, it is an undeniable fact that religion and politics should go hand in hand, whenever there’s riot between the two, the state suffers. This is particularly true for Mexico, when the liberals revolted against the Catholic system, the entire nation was turmoil. Leading to a revolutionary. Religion builds and supports the state, it controls beliefs, morals and ways of life, far more above law ever could. Formation of a state, particularly the two states mentioned above, was greatly dependent on religion, even their political systems came from their religions, whether by revolution, riots and cohesiveness or by peace
- Nongbri, B. (2013). Before Religion: A History of a Modern Concept. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15416-0.
- Agren, D. (2016). The Guardian Separation of Catholics and state: Mexico’s divisive religious history. Fri 12 Feb 2016 12.00 GMT
- Heslop, A. (2019). Political system Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
- Fallaw, B. (2016) .Religion and State Formation in Post-revolutionary Mexico. Published: January 2016
- Semo, I. (1999). Political historian at the Jesuit-run Iberoamerican University.
- Jahanbakhsh, F. (2003). Assistant Professor, Islamic Studies Queen’s University, Canada