Health and Social Care

Health and well-being can change over time and vary between different cultures and life stages. Health and well-being can be described as the absence of physical illness, disease and mental distress. This is a negative definition of health and well-being. Health and well-being can be described as the achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability. This is a positive definition of health and well-being. Health and well-being as a result is a combination of physical, social, intellectual and emotional factors. This is a holistic definition of well-being. 1. A holistic definition of health:

When looking at someone holistically, we are not just focusing on illness, or specific parts of the body. Holistic health is an approach to a person’s lifestyle, and considers the whole person based on a combination of their physical, intellectual, emotional and social factors.

Jay is a personal trainer; he offers a great example of someone with a holistic attitude to health. He keeps (physically) fit as he eats a balanced diet and exercises regularly. He learns about different training strategies and reads books (intellectual). He is happily committed in relationship with his girlfriend (emotional). He meets many different people as he trains and competes in competitions across different gyms over the UK (social).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs is a motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a hierarchy. The four levels (lower-order needs) are considered as basic needs, while the top level is considered growth needs. The lower level needs need to be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior.

Both holistic and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are very similar. This is because they both have the same concept, as they look at all aspects ofhealth.

2. A positive definition of health:A positive concept towards health and illness could be defined as believing that being healthy is a state which is achieved through continual effort. People with this approach believe that by taking regular exercise and looking after their bodies will keep them well.

Generally people with a positive approach to health believe that they are responsible for their own health. If a person with a positive attitude becomes ill they are likely to blame themselves if they develop symptoms of an illness. For example, someone who is very pretty and adores their body, however they know that they may be slightly over-weight and in order to stay healthy they should lose some weight.

3. A negative definition of health:A negative concept towards a person could be towards their health as they may be in denial or refusal based on the fact that they may not have an exact illness but their attitude based on the way they live their life might be wrong and the person does not understand that. Frankie Cocoza’s a prime example of someone with a negative attitude towards his health. ‘’ what’s a drink once in a while, I’m only trying to enjoy life while I’m still young’’. This shows that he is in denial about not being healthy. This is a negative attitude towards your health.

Overall holistic definition of health looks at every aspect of a person’s health and well-being, whereas negative and positive definitions of health are only one sided. This means that positive only looks at the good and negative only looks at the bad aspects of a person’s health. I believe that a holistic definition of health is the most efficient as I think it is best to look after all parts of your health, for example your physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects with a holistic attitude. Social construction:

Social construction is something that is invented by members of a culture or society that will only exist because people accept, agree and behave in that particular way. An example of this is social class. Social class is where someone fits into a particular society based on their working class such as lower, middle and upper class.

This is determined by a person’s occupation, income and level of education. Social status, which is also another example of social construction, is the rank that an individual holds in a social hierarchy based upon honour or prestige. For example, the position of a man in his kin group helps determine his position in the larger community.

Social construction involves 4 categories; * Time* Place* Life stage* CultureTime: Many illnesses have only been recognised recently after many years. For example cholera, before used to be known as something that cannot be cured and if you had it than you were being punished by God or caught the disease through bad air called miasma. In this day and age with the help of technology, scientists have found out that this is actually caused by contaminated water. Place: The area you live in determines how people see you.

For example if a person lives in a city and another person lives in a rural area, automatically people begin to think that the person who lives in the city has had a better upbringing and lifestyle due to where they live. This may be because people believe that the city have well paid, higher standard jobs.

But living in a rural area would mean that you do not have a good paid job. This means that people will judge you on the place you come from and live. Life stage: Someone who is born with a disability, for example they are blind. Automatically people begin to assume that they are disabled. However, they are not disabled because they were born with this sort of disability.

The child grows up with the acknowledgement that they have been born with not being able to see. If the child was not born blind, this will cause them many difficulties as it will be hard for them to adjust to life without being able to suddenly not see, as they have experienced part of their life when they could. This makes it more difficult to deal with rather than a person who is born as they would be used to it. Culture:

An excellent example of culture is marriage. This is something that exists completely within the human society and is complete with specific rules, morals and expectations. Society has created certain ideas about how marriage is supposed to look, as well as, how it is supposed to be fulfilled by an individual. As you can possibly determine, a vast amount of our culture is socially constructed, this means that it has a set of rules that are determined by society’s whims, and trends. Factors: 1.) Physical, diets, exercises

2.) Social, emotional and cultural3.) Economic4.) Physical environmental factors5.) Psychological factors, stress, relationships6.) Health monitoring, illness prevention

Physical: Claire has many physical factors that prevent her from getting on with her everyday life. A physical factor that affects Claire’s lifestyle is heavily smoking. ‘’cigarette smoke contains about 4,000 different chemicals which can damage the cells and systems of the human body.

These include at least 80 chemicals that can cause cancer (including tar, arsenic, benzene, cadmium and formaldehyde) nicotine (a highly addictive chemical which hooks a smoker into their habit) and hundreds of other poisons such as cyanide, carbon monoxide and ammonia.’’ – Heavily smoking can cause many problems for Claire; for example lung disease, this causes a difficulty in breathing.

This is because tiny particles settling in the depths of the lungs. Also chronic bronchitis is caused by tar in cigarettes. The tar stimulates the goblet cells to produce mucus. Smoking damages your blood vessels and increases your risk of heart disease and stroke. It can also affect how well your blood circulates, and therefore oxygen, flowing around your body – for example, you may notice you often have cold hands and feet, which is a result of not enough blood getting to them.

If Claire gives up her heavy routine of smoking her blood pressure would slowly decrease, returning to normal. Another physical factor effecting Claire’s health is her un-healthy diet, this is having a negative effect on Claire as she cannot control her eating habits which results in her comfort eating. This is physically affecting her as she is rapidly