Health promotion is illustrated as the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to approach a state of optimal health (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). It is also stated that health promotion is the practice of promoting health to enhance the probability that person, private, and public support of positive health practices will become a societal norm (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Nurses are pivotal healthcare professionals who guide health decisions by persons, communities, and families toward health promotion (Baker, 2007).
Nurses must retain skills to achieve and understand the efficacy of evidence based interventions and know about related theories and models (Baker, 2007). As nurses we use health promotion to strengthen community action and create supportive environments for health (Goldman, 2012).
Health promotion is used to address controversies that are controlled internally and externally among individuals (Goldman, 2012). Individual health behaviors are the internal determinants while socioeconomic and environmental conditions are the external determinants (Goldman, 2012). The whole idea of health promotion in the nursing practice is to improve the population’s welfare by creating an atmosphere of a healthy society and a variety of healthy choices (Goldman, 2012).
A nurses perspective of health promotion recognizes that social change is not continuous and involves multiple communities working together to address health problems (Norman PhD, 2009). Nurses have a strong set of values that accentuates health equity, respect for diversity, and the social determinants of health, while still staying focused on the individual, organization, and community which are all parts of health promotion (Norman PhD, 2009).
Evolving of Health Promotion and Implementations in the Nursing PracticeHealth promotion encompasses a range of enterprises, including the nursing practice, to promote health and wellbeing (Paniagua, Reilly, Evans, & Bond, 2011).
In history nurses taught patients how to manage and deal with an illness; now the focus is on teaching how to remain healthy and prevent diseases. Health promotion is now being defined basically as helping an individual, family, or community to take charge of their own health and work toward improving it. In order for a nurse to provide persons with the right tools, which is information, nurses must study longer and earn bigger degrees. Nurses now need to seize any moment they can to deal with a patient directly so they can educate them.
Now, nurses are at the forefront to education the patient, whether it is the community, an individual or family. Before nurses were only assumed to care for the sick; now they are caring for the well and educating them on how to remain healthy. Perhaps this role is more important because of budget cuts, insurance changes, and staffing shortages. If we can reduce how many times a patient needs to enter the health care system, we can preserve wellness and reduce costs.
Nursing has made great strides in clinical practice but issues such as the changing healthcare market have encouraged a concentration on promoting wellness and disease prevention rather than just teaching how to deal with an illness. In order to achieve this, the Institute of Medicine released, in October 2010, a report that outlines major categories of change needed to address the evolution of health promotion. First the IOM stated that nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training (Institute of Medicine, 2010)
. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 implemented to health care structures and because of these new structures new roles will be implemented and nurses will have the opportunity to play a vital role in transforming the health care system (Institute of Medicine, 2010). The IOM believes that patients merit care that is centered on their particular needs and not what is most suitable for the health professionals involved in their care, which is why they want to implement their first key message (Institute of Medicine, 2010).
The second key message the IOM reported on was that nurses should achieve higher levels of education and training through an enhanced education system that promotes flawless academic progression (Institute of Medicine, 2010). A higher level of education can contribute to a better understanding of and experience in care management, quality improvement practices and the changed roles of nurses in a reformed health care system (Institute of Medicine, 2010).
The IOMs third key message stated that nurses should be full partners, with physicians and other health professionals, in reconstructing health care in the United States (Institute of Medicine, 2010). Because strong leadership is crucial to a transformed health care system, the nursing profession needs to generate leaders all through the health care system, from the bedside to the boardroom so their own contributions can be accountable to delivering high quality care (Institute of Medicine, 2010).
These three key messages from the IOM report will play major roles in the evolution of health promotion. Primary care and prevention are the main drivers of the health care system and there are aspects of nursing that must be changed that will help promote a better health. These changes or key messages that the IOM reported on will make a difference in the education of preventing health not just education in dealing with an illness. The Three Levels of Health Promotion Prevention
There is much comparison between the three levels of health promotion preventions. The three levels are primary, secondary and tertiary (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Primary prevention includes health promotion and specific protection (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Health promotion in primary prevention mean education about risk factors for diseases and specific protection means things like immunizations against polio (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). The whole purpose to primary prevention is to reduce vulnerability of a population or individual to a disease or dysfunction as well as advocate for policies that promote health of the community (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
Primary prevention can include producing surrounding that are favorable to health rather than health problems (Goldman, 2012). Secondary prevention includes screenings to identify individuals in an early, detectable stage of a disease process (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014).
It also includes treating early stages of a disease to narrowing disability by delaying the ramifications of advanced disease (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). Tertiary prevention involves rehabilitation to help people maintain an optimum level of functioning (Edelman, Kudzma, & Mandle, 2014). This level of prevention also includes addressing critical health conditions and diseases, especially those that are chronic and communicable (Goldman, 2012). Summary
Health promotion and its definition along with the evolution of the changing health care system involve many aspects and forth coming changes. An acknowledgement of what health promotion is how it relates to the nursing practice and how it is evolving is crucial to nurses. Health promotion is an appropriate strategy for social development and a crucial set of strategies that focuses on issues influencing unequal differences in health (Chiang, 2010).
The three levels of health promotion prevention helps promote conditions and allow people to stay healthy and be able to make healthy decisions (Chiang, 2010). According to Chiang health is a natural resource that empowers us as human beings to live productive lives and it encircles personal and social resources which include physical and spirituality (2010). In order to target different issues affecting our health and we must have an overall view and understanding of health promotion.
ReferencesBaker, D. (2007). Health Promotion in Nursing Practice. Family and Community Health , 85-86. Chiang, J. (2010, August 24). The Role and Importance of Health Promotion. Retrieved February 7, 2014, from Articlesbase: http://www.articlesbase.com/mental-health-articles/the-role-and-importance-of-health-promotion-3117945.html Edelman, C., Kudzma, E., & Mandle, L. (2014). Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Goldman, E. (2012). Health Promotion In Nursing Practice. Health and Fitness . Institute of Medicine. (2010). The Future of Nursing: Leading Chnge, Advancing health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Norman PhD, C. (2009). Health Promotion as a Systems Science and Practice. Evaluation in Clinical Practice , 868-872.