Health and Hygiene

IntroductionHealth is a positive state of well being, where every part of the body and mind is in harmony and in proper functioning balance with every other part. In other words, when every organ of the body is functioning normally, the state of physical well being is known as health. It has been well said that only that person can be called really healthy who has a sound mind in a sound body. Health is the characteristic of life that enables a person to live longer.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO): “Health is the state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being and not merely absence of disease”. If a person is disease free or in a good physical state, but under stress, tension, anger, greed etc. than that person is not considered as a healthy person.

Hence, in addition to physical health, we must consider the mental and emotional health also, only than spiritual and social health can be achieved and man can progress forward for the well being of the society. Let us understand the various aspects of health- * Physical health – When the body is free from any physical ailment or abnormal condition, it is physical health. * Mental health – The state of absence of stress, tension, worry, negative thoughts etc. is mental health.

* Emotional health – A balanced state of absence of anger, greed, proud, hatred etc. is emotional health. * Spiritual health – To live in yourself with uniformity and harmony is spiritual health. Also, to have faith in your religion and respect & view other’s religion with equal harmony is known as spiritual health. Community health is the art and science of maintaining, protecting and improving the health of people through organized community efforts. Hygiene

Hygiene is defined as the science and art of preserving and improving health. The purpose of hygiene is to allow man to live in healthy relationship with his environment. It deals both with an individual and a community as a whole. In order to be healthy one must realize that hygiene and sanitation play a very important role. Some of the factors essential for Good health are

1. Personal Hygiene2. Public CleanlinessPersonal Cleanliness is important for personal health. Hygiene is an essential component of healthy living, In fact, Hygiene is integral to achieving good health and preventing disease and infection. Not just selecting the right food choices but also cooking & consuming them in a hygienic way is equally important in preventing the infectious diseases. Adopting hygienic practices and promoting hygiene in the community, schools and workplace prevents innumerable infectious diseases.

Some of the infectious diseases prevented by practicing proper hygienic practices include diarrhoea, amoebiasis, giardiasis, worm infection, typhoid, jaundice, bacterial pharyngitis, skin infections, tuberculosis, conjunctivitis etc. Many chronic diseases are also linked to infections caused by unhygienic foods. These include gastric ulcers, certain types of cancers and some cardiovascular diseases. One of the most effective ways we have to protect ourselves and others from illness is good personal hygiene.

This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. It means being careful not to cough or sneeze on others, cleaning things that you touch if you are unwell, putting items such as tissues (that may have germs) into a bin, and using protection (like gloves or condoms) when you might be at risk of catching an infection. Personal hygiene, such as bathing, is very much dependent on the culture in which you live. In some cultures, it is expected that you will wash your body at least every day and use deodorants to stop body smells. Other cultures have different expectations. Body odour

Body smells are caused by a number of factors working in combination, including: Chemicals in sweat, including pheromones, which are made by the body and sexually attract (or repel) other people. Wastes excreted through the skin, such as metabolised alcohol. The actions of bacteria that live on the skin and feed on dead skin cells and sweat. Unwashed clothes, such as underwear and socks.

Hand washingMost infections, especially colds and gastroenteritis, are caught when we put our unwashed hands, which have germs on them, to our mouth. Some infections are caught when other people’s dirty hands touch the food we eat. Hands andwrists should be washed with clean soap and water, using a brush if your fingernails are dirty. Dry your hands with something clean, such as paper towels or hot air dryers. You should always wash your hands: After using the toilet

Before making or eating foodAfter handling dogs or other animalsIf you have been around someone who is coughing or has a cold. Personal hygiene for women The vagina is able to clean itself no special care is needed, other than washing the external genitals. Do not put anything like douches into the vagina, as the delicate skin can be damaged. Here are some personal hygiene suggestions for women: Menstruation – wash your body, including your genital area, in the same way as you always do. Change tampons and sanitary napkins regularly, at least four to five times a day. Always wash your hands before and after handling a tampon or pad. Cystitis – is an infection of the bladder.

This is a common condition for sexually active young women. Urinating after sexual intercourse can help to flush out any bacteria that may be in the urethra and bladder. Thrush – some soaps and detergents can irritate the skin of the vagina, and make thrush infections more likely. Some people find that they often get thrush when they use antibiotics. Use mild soap and unperfumed toilet paper. Avoid tight, synthetic underwear. Try cotton underwear, and change regularly. There is medical treatment for thrush, so talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Personal hygiene for menA build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. If you are uncircumcised, gently pull back the foreskin when you have a shower and clean with water. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well. Bad breath

Good dental hygiene includes regular brushing and flossing. Bad breath can be caused by diseases of the teeth, gums and mouth, such as infections. Most people have bad breath first thing in the morning because saliva is not made while you’re asleep. Some foods that can cause bad breath include garlic and onion. Mouth washes, mouth sprays and flavoured chewing gum can make your breath smell better for a while, but if you have a health problem in your mouth, you need to see your dentist. Travelling hygiene

When travelling overseas, take special care if you’re not sure whether the water is safe. Suggestions include: Drink only bottled water. Don’t use tap water to clean your teeth. When you wash your hands, make sure they are totally dry before you touch any food. Don’t wash fruit or vegetables in unsafe water. If you have no other water source, make sure the water is boiled before you drink it by holding it at a rolling boil for one minute. Make sure any dishes, cups or other utensils are totally dry after they are washed. Conclusion

Health care institutions have a social responsibility to identify and delineate all causes of disease and disability in a population and then to mobilize the medical resources necessary to attack those causes. Since it has been shown that the health of African-Americans is markedly lower than European-American, it necessarily follows that “this situation would have to be called, in part, a racist consequence of the actions and structure of those health institutions”.

Health is Wealth. Hygiene is two-third of Health. A country’s development is measured by not only by its wealth but also by the health of its people. To ensure health, basic hygiene should be taught and provided to the public