These are also relatively valid sources of information since they are written by scholars in various fields. According to Creswell (2001), advantages of these sources of information include the fact that they are easily accessible over the Internet, which makes them cheap. They are also written about a variety of topics, which are readily available, and these sources give different perspectives by different authors. This helps authors who use these sources of information come up with comprehensive articles. There are however weaknesses which are associated with the use of these sources of information.
The first weakness is that it is difficult to obtain clarifications and further explanations on the materials, since the author is not physically present. This may affect the validity and comprehensiveness of the research. According to Creswell (2000), another weakness is that the mistakes and errors which are present in the original documents are likely to be replicated by the researcher, in case he or she relies on them when writing the research. For instance, if the original documents are biased, and the researchers use them to develop the research, there is a high likelihood that the research will also be biased.
Instruments used. There were different methods which were used to obtain data. However, structured interviews were applied, and these analyzed the perception from respondents on whether they had either committed, observed or experienced a form of hate crime. The research focused specifically on hate crimes which were based on the sexuality of the victim. The respondents were chosen using a simple random sample which was conducted in California. Three thousand people were interviewed, and they were the major contributors of the information one this issue.
The respondents were between the ages of twelve to forty and they gave very useful information. They were from diverse races and religious backgrounds which helped in obtaining the perspectives of different ethnic groups. The respondents were also issued with a scale which had a five points, with five being the highest and vice verse. This scale used to analyze the perception that the people of California had toward the seriousness of the racial crimes. The analysis tools used were the regression model and chi-square distribution.
According to Charmaz (2000), these are very valid tools when analyzing qualitative research. Research findings. Motivators of hate crimes. Hate crimes against sexual minorities. These are attacks which are directed toward people who belong to sexual minority groups. These include lesbians, homosexuals, bi-sexual and others. Approximately 10% of respondents admitted that they had used threats or physical violence against a person who they thought was a homosexual. The study also revealed that 24% of the respondents called each other anti-gay names.
The male respondents engaged more in both physical threats or violence and name calling, with 18% confessing to using physical threats or violence and 32% confessing to name calling. Basically, half of the male respondents agreed to have engaged in either physical threats or violence, or name calling. Among the people who did not admit to having ever engaged in anti gay aggression, 30% of them confessed most likely do so if faced with a proposition from a homosexual. There were four major motivations which triggered aggression toward the sexual minorities and they are discussed below.