The Harvard is an international standardised approach used for referencing published material. The following are examples that you must LEARN and PRACTICE so that you can apply the same method for assignments, projects and eventually, you 4th Year Thesis. This document is in two parts.
Part A goes through the various sources of published material and how they must be written so that you can REFERENCE correctly in the references section at the end of your assignment, report or other work. No matter how many different types of material (textbook, journal article, government report etc..) you use for an assignment, project or other piece of written work, all the references you used must be listed in ALPHABETICAL format. See Sample References Sheet attached to this document.
Part B focuses on how you would use a reference in a sentence and or paragraph in your assignment, report or other work. Typically you would use the (Author’s Surname, Year of Publication and Page Number) in brackets.
PART A: THE REFERENCE SECTION
1. Single Author reference: Textbook Examples
Structure: Last-name, initials [of the author or authors], (Year of publication) Title of the book [Edition or Volume if required] City of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Blaut, J.M. (1993) The Coloniser's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History, New York: Guilford Press.
Date, C. J. (1990). An introduction to database systems [5th ed.]. Menlo Park, Cal: Addison- Wesley.
2. Two Author or more reference:
Bradley, A., & Ingold, A. (1993). An investigation of yield management in Birmingham Hotels [3rd ed.]. New York: Guilford Press
3. Journal Article Examples
Structure: Last-name, initial [of the author or authors of the article]. (Year of publication) "Title of the article" Title of the Journal Volume (number), complete page numbers.
Brotherton, B., & Mooney, S. (1992). Yield management: Progress and prospects. International Journal ofHospitality Management 11(1 ), 23-32.
Hepple, L. (1998) “Context, Social Construction and Statistics: Regression, Social Science and Human Geography,” Journal of Environment and Planning 30 (3), 225-234.
4. Government Report/Publication:
China National Tourism Administration. (2002a). The yearbook of China tourism statistics. Beijing: China Travel and Tourism Press.
5. Web Site Reference:
Structure: Last-name Initial [of the author of the page, if it is provided], (Date of document, if available) "Title of the article or page", Title of the Web-Site underlined, (URL of the site, date accessed). Examples:
Wolfensohn, J.D. (1999) "A Proposal for a Comprehensive Development Framework" World Bank Group Official Home Page (http://www.worldbank.org/cdf/cdf-text.htm, 22 June, 1999). Example of an article from a journal available in print and electronic form: Handwashing Liaison Group (1999) Hand washing. BMJ[online], 318 (7185),686. Available from: http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/318/7185/686 [Accessed 4th July 2001]. 6. An article in a newspaper:
White, M. (1998) £68m to cut NHS waiting lists. Guardian, Monday May 18 1998, p.8. If no author name is given then anon should be used instead. Anon (1998) Schemes to boost dental care. Guardian, Monday May 18 1998, p.8. 7. A Thesis or dissertation:
Stones, Marian (1995) Women, nurses, education: an oral history taking technique. Unpublished M.Ed. dissertation, University of Sheffield. 8. A secondary reference(see in-text secondary reference method) Fiedler, F. and Chemers, M. (1974) Leadership and effective management. Glenview, Illinois, Scott Foresman & Co. Cited in: Douglass, Laura Mae (1996) The effective nurse: leader and manager. 5th edition. St. Louis, Missouri, Mosby.
PART B: IN-TEXT REFERENCING All statements, opinions, conclusions etc. taken from another writer's work should be acknowledged, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised. In the Harvard System cited publications are referred to in one of the forms shown below: Single author:- Paraphrase (Using someone else’s idea, sentence or short paragraph and using your own words to describe it) In a study by Seedhouse (1997) coping with illness was investigated ....or
In a study (Seedhouse,1997) coping with illness was investigated ....or
Throughout the book, Butchart (1998) takes issue with those who treat repression as the central problematic of South African race relations. When an author has published more than one cited document in the same year these are distinguished by adding lower case letters after the year within the brackets. Burnard (1992a) wrote about communication for health professionals that .... Two authors :- In the book by Basford and Slevin (1995) ..... More than two authors:-
Benner et al (1996) conclude that .... [Note: only use et al after you have used all the authors’ names in an earlier citation] If more than one citation is referred to within a sentence, list them all in the following form, by date and then alphabetically:- There are indications that passive smoking is potentially threatening to the health.......... ( Francome and Marks, 1996; Bunton, 1995; Lupton, 1995) Harvard method of quoting in the text
When quoting directly in the text use quotation marks as well as acknowledging the author's name, year of publication and page number of the quote in brackets. Short quotations eg up to 2 lines can be included in the body of the text:- “The idea that tropical climates are nasty, and inhibit the forward march of civilisation, is a very old one in European thought” (Blaut 1993, 69). Longer quotations should be indented in a separate paragraph:-
Thomas and Ingham (1995) in discussing staff development state that: "Development is infectious, and staff who previously have recoiled from undertaking a degree or conversion course have been encouraged by the success of others"(p.33).
Secondary referencing Secondary referencing is when one author is referring to the work of another and the primary source is not available.
You should cite the primary source and the source you have read eg (Fiedler and Chemers, 1974, cited in Douglass, 1996). Secondary referencing should be used in a limited capacity and/or avoided if at all possible.
Sample Text with in-text references: (related to PART B)
Title: Antecedents of organisational commitment
“Antecedents of organisational commitment are quite diverse in their nature and origins’’ (Steers, 1977, p. 53). Because of the range of theories and diversity of antecedents, categories are useful. Four categories of antecedents are influential: personal characteristics, job- or role-related characteristics, work experiences (Steers, 1977), and structural characteristics (Mowday et al., 1982; Nijhof et al., 1998).
This paper concentrates on job/role-related characteristics and work experiences, as these are the categories that are the most flexible in the hotel industry. In addition, they are the characteristics over which senior managers arguably have the most influence in their hotels. Therefore, job/role characteristics and work experiences may be the most important characteristics in encouraging organisational commitment.
Sample References in the Reference Section of Report: (Related to PART A)
Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1990), ``The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organisation’’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, No. 63, pp. 1-18.
Benkhoff, B. (1997), ``Ignoring commitment is costly: new approaches establish the missing link between commitment and performance’’, Human Relations, Vol. 50 No. 6, pp. 701-26.
Bennett, H. and Durkin, M. (2000), ``The effects of organisational change on employee psychological attachment: an exploratory study’’, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 126-47..
Cannon, D.F. (2002), ``Building organisational commitment in international hospitality and tourism organisations’’, in D’Annunzio-Green N., Maxwell G. and Watson S. (Eds), Human Resource Management: International Perspectives in Hospitality and Tourism, Continuum, London.
Dhakal, S. (2002). Mega-Cities in Asia: An (un)sustainable development? Beijing. Retrieved June 3, 2003, from: http//www.igbp.kva.se/precom4/Dhakal- background. Pdf(accessed May 2003)
Fowler, F. J. (1993). Survey research methods. Newbury Park, Cal: Sage Publications.
Gillham, B. (2000). Developing a questionnaire. London: Continuum.
Grusky, O. (1966), ``Career mobility and organisational commitment’’, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 488-503.
Hrebiniak, L.G. and Alutto, J.A. (1972), ``Personal and role-related factors in the development of organisational commitment’’, Administrative Science Quarterly, No. 17, pp. 555-72.