Group Influence

What Is a Group?

Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us”Social Facilitation: How Are WeAffected by the Presence of Others?The Mere Presence of OthersSocial facilitationStrengthening of dominant responses whether correct or incorrect in the presence of others Boosts performance on easy tasksImpairs performance on difficult tasks

Social Facilitation: How Are WeAffected by the Presence of Others?Crowding: The Presence of Many OthersEffect of others’ presence increases with their number Being in a crowd intensifies positive or negative reactions Enhances arousal

Social Facilitation: How Are WeAffected by the Presence of Others?Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others?Evaluation apprehensionConcern for how others are evaluating usDriven by distractionWhen we wonder how co-actors are doing or how an audience is reacting, we become distracted Mere presenceCan be arousing even when we are not evaluated or distractedSocial Loafing: Do Individuals ExertLess Effort in a Group?Social LoafingTendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their effortstoward a common goal than when they are individually accountableSocial Loafing: Do Individuals ExertLess Effort in a Group?Many Hands Make Light WorkEffort decreases as group size increasesFree ridersPeople who benefit from the group but give little in returnSocial Loafing: Do Individuals ExertLess Effort in a Group?Social Loafing in Everyday LifePeople in groups loaf less when the task isChallengingAppealingRewards are significantInvolvingTeam spirit

Deindividuation: When Do PeopleLose Their Sense of Self in Groups?DeindividuationLoss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or badDeindividuation: When Do PeopleLose Their Sense of Self in Groups?Doing Together What We Would Not Do AloneGroup sizeLarger the group the more its members lose self-awareness and become willing to commit atrocities People’s attention is focused on the situation, not on themselves “Everyone’s doing it” attitude

They contribute their behavior to the situation rather than to their own choicesDeindividuation: When Do PeopleLose Their Sense of Self in Groups?Doing Together What We Would Not Do AloneAnonymityBeing anonymous makes one less self- conscious, more group conscious, and more responsive to cues present in the situation, whethernegative or positive

Children were more likely to transgress by taking extraHalloween candy when in a group, when anonymous, and, especially, when deindividuated by the combination of group immersion and anonymity.Deindividuation: When Do PeopleLose Their Sense of Self in Groups?Doing Together What We Would Not Do AloneArousing and distracting activitiesWhen we act in an impulsive way as a group, we are not thinking about our values; we are reacting to the immediate situation Impulsive group action absorbs our attention

Deindividuation: When Do PeopleLose Their Sense of Self in Groups?Diminished Self-AwarenessTend to increase people’s responsiveness to the immediate situation, be it negative or positiveGroup Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?Group PolarizationGroup-produced enhancement of members’ preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the groupGroup Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?“Risky Shift” PhenomenonOccurs not only when a group decides by consensus; after a brief discussion, individuals, too, will alter their decisions JuriesBusiness committeesMilitary organizationsTeen drivers

Group Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?Do Groups Intensify Opinions?Group polarization experimentsMoscovici and Zavalloni (1969)Mititoshi Isozaki (1984)Markus Brauer, et al. (2001)

Group Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?Do Groups Intensify Opinions?Group polarization in everyday lifeSchoolsAccentuation effectCommunitiesSelf-segregationInternetTerrorists organizations

Group Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?Explaining PolarizationInformational influenceArgumentsActive participation

Group Polarization: Do GroupsIntensify Our Opinions?Explaining PolarizationNormative influenceSocial comparisonEvaluating one’s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others Pluralistic ignoranceA false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are respondingGroupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action Caused by

Cohesive groupIsolation of the group from dissenting viewpointsDirective leader

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Symptoms of GroupthinkFollowing lead group members to overestimate their group’s might and right Illusion of invulnerabilityUnquestioned belief in the group’s morality

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Symptoms of GroupthinkFollowing leads group members to become closed- mindedRationalizationStereotyped view of opponent

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Symptoms of GroupthinkFollowing leads group to feel pressure toward uniformity Conformity pressureSelf-censorshipIllusion of unanimityMindguards

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Critiquing GroupthinkDirective leadership is associated with poorer decisions Groups do prefer supporting over challenging information Groups make smart decisions by widely distributed conversation with members who take turns speaking Group acceptance, approval, and social identity, suppress disagreeable thoughts among members Diverse groups produce more creativity

Groups may not always benefit from all that members knowGroupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Preventing GroupthinkBe impartialEncourage critical evaluationOccasionally subdivide the group, then reunite to air differences Welcome critiques from outside experts and associatesCall a second-chance meeting

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder orAssist Good Decisions?Group Problem SolvingCombine group and solitary brainstormingHave group members interact by writingIncorporate electronic brainstorming

The Influence of the Minority: HowDo Individuals Influence the Group?ConsistencyMinority slowness effectSelf-ConfidencePortrayed by consistency and persistenceDefections from the MajorityMinority person who defects from the majority is more persuasive than a consistent minority voiceThe Influence of the Minority: HowDo Individuals Influence the Group?Is Leadership Minority Influence?Leadership

Process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Formal and informal group leaders exert disproportionate influenceThe Influence of the Minority: HowDo Individuals Influence the Group?Is Leadership Minority Influence?Task leadershipOrganizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goalsSocial leadershipBuilds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers supportTransformational leadershipEnabled by a leader’s vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence