Group dynamics study guide

* Kurt Lewin- the father of Group Dynamics * Began in the 20th century in North America * 4 stages of Group Process 1. Forming- getting to know you phase-uneasiness/distrust 2. Storming-conflict occurs as the group tries to come together 3. Norming-conflict is resolved, group becomes cohesive 4. Performing-group members are cooperative 5. Adjourning * Elements of effective meetings- clear and purpose and agenda * Creativity- use of imagination and generation of new ideas * Meyers-Briggs-Personality inventory * 3 types of Diversity 1. Demographic- ethnicity, language, handicap, social class, religion, age, gender 2. Personal characteristics- age, gender, communication style, economic background 3. Abilities and skills- social and technical, what one brings to the group * Working Styles:

1. Amiable-people-oriented, relatively unassertive, warm, and reliable, organizers 2. Analytical- task-oriented and unassertive. Need to be right, slow, cautious, people oriented 3. Driver- dominant, task-oriented, assertive, competitive with others, impatient 4. Expressive- people-oriented, assertive, fast-paced, manipulative, uninhibited * Managing Conflict:

1. Force Field Analysis- used to identify forces that help and hinder the desired change 2. Fishbone Analysis- cause and effect diagram- useful in diagnosing a problem and implementing a solution * P.A.S.T Model of Win-Win- useful in that both parties will get what they want 1. Principles-Focus on issues, not personalities

2. Assumptions-bargaining enhances the parties relationship 3. Steps-agree on a list of issues 4. Techniques-idea charting, brain storming, consensus decision making * Interest-Based Problem Solving 1. Define the problem 2. Determine the interest 3. Develop options 4. Evaluate Options 5. Construct and implement solutions 6. Review and assess

* Conflict management: 1. Paraphrase- restating in your own words what a person say, feels, and means 2. Take a social perspective/ avoiding egocentrism- seeing things from a perspective other than your own * Vision- an ideal and unique image of the future

* Goal- An ideal- a desired place toward which people are working: a state of affairs that people value * Prejudice- opinion, prejudgment or attitude about a group or its members * Stereotyping- exaggerated belief, image, or distorted truth about a person or group * Unconscious prejudice- hidden bias or implicit bias- automatic response * Social interdependence- Morton Deutsch

* Feedback- information that allows individuals to compare their actual performance with standards of performance * Expressing acceptance- communication of high regard toward others and their contributions * Group decision making:

1. Imposed- decision by authority without discussion- dictators, parents, teachers 2. Voting- majority rules- democracies, families, unions, classrooms 3. Consensus- mutual agreement by all members- juries

* Charismatic leader- a person with extraordinary power or vision and is able to communicate it to others * Machiavellian leader- uses deceit, duplicity, and cunning to increase power and success, believes that people are basically weak and can be manipulated * Autocratic leaders- imposed decision method, determined policies without involving group members * Democratic leaders- voting or consensus decision method * Laissez-faire leader- chance method of decision making, doesn’t participate in a group’s decision making at all * Leadership

1. Influence- reciprocal relationship between leaders and followers in which an exchange takes place 2. Role position- persons in position of authority are automatically seen as leaders 3. Situational- there is no “best” style

* Theory X- people are naturally lazy and prefer to do nothing * Theory Y- people are naturally active, set goals and enjoy striving * Bases of Power 1. Reward- ability to deliver positive or remove negative consequences 2. Coercive- ability to deliver negative or remove positive consequences 3. Legitimate-based on the persons position or status

4. Referent- members identify with the person, want to be like him/her 5. Expert- members believe the person has a high level of knowledge or skill set that isn’t available elsewhere 6. Informational- members believe the person has information or resources that aren’t available eleswhere