Value – (Hollander) core component of a clustering of attitudes which direct behavior on a long range basic toward some goals in preference to others. Value has a more central quality, less subjected to the effects of situational change. It is a learned goal.
Value (Laird et al.) is simply defined as the personal worth that someone puts on an object or idea. Teresita Lara’s unpublished masteral thesis (Ateneo de Manila University 1986) conducted changing value orientation through group dynamics. Here, findings are as follows: 1. Group dynamics seminar changes the value orientation of the participant on the following: a) From being individualistic to lineal or collateral
b) From being past oriented to becoming more present or future oriented
c) From being subjected to nature, to mastery over and with nature
d) From being to task orientation were significantly change by the group dynamics 2. Relational and time task orientation were significantly changed by the group dynamics. 3.Five months after the group dynamics seminar the changes in value orientation were still sustained at a significant level.
Teresita Lara – Changing value orientation through group dynamics unpublished MA thesis, Ateneo de Manila University 1986.
ESSENTIAL CRITERIA OF VALUE A. Choosing Aspect – It must be chosen freely, presence of alternative factors, effects must be considered.
B. Overtly Expressed – acted upon by the person and expressed repeatedly.
C. Prizing and Acceptance – must achieve his potentials and aspiration. Presence of commitment and publicity affirmed. Filipino values according to Lynch (1970) are essential for smooth interpersonal relationship.
Namely : Pakikisama, Go – Between and Euphemism 1. Pakikisama – refers to the yielding of a person to the “one of us” identification. 2. Go – Between – the need of mediator or facilitator 3. Euphemism – to be able to state the most unpleasant remarks in the most pleasant manner. According to Dr. Patricia Licuanan in her special address on the 29th Psychological Association of the Philippines annual convention, she gave briefly the dynamics of strengths and weaknesses of Filipinos.
1. Pakikipagkapwa- Tao – Pakikisama, pakikiramay, bayanihan – sensitiveness of Filipino to help could be the source also of weaknesses – tendency to be subjective. 2. Family Ties – closer kinship that gives sense of security – extreme case tends to lead to nepotism.
3. Sense of Humor – Tendency to look at the lighter side, to be optimistic which might lead to passitivity and escapist attitude.
4. Creativity – Flexibility and innovativeness could lead to extreme shifting and poor productivity.
5. Religiousity – Adherance to faith or God could lead extremely to be dependent and loss of own initiativeness.
FILIPINO VALUES FOR TEAM EFFECTIVENESS The Filipino is an expert in human relationship. He can create system to make relationships serve his purposes. Examples of these systems are the suki system, the compadre system, the bata-bata system, and the utang-na-loob system.
To utilize Filipino values for team effectiveness the following are essential elements: a) Self-awareness of own values. b) Awareness of your neighbor’s values. Pakikipagkapwa-tao is a must for a Filipino in an organization. This sprang from his very nature or “pagkatao.” That is why he is group oriented – the “barkada,” the group identity or “we” group. The Filipino value of small group centeredness means that the Filipino feels very much at home with his team, rather than with big, large cities or societies. We tend to love persons and use things or use persons and love things depending on our concept of Life Positions which are the following: 1. “Hindi ako okay, okay ka.”- Most common
2. “Hindi ako okay, hindi ka rin okay.”- Fantastic 3. “Okay ako, hindi ka okay.”- Traumatic 4. “Okay ako, okay ka.”- Constructive The Filipino is fantastic many times. He does not want to suffer alone. He needs a “damay.” Sometimes, he is traumatic by pulling others down to his low level. This negative life position must be turned positive by stocking or “himas.” For good relationship, we don’t apply direct of brutally, frank communication to Filipinos. We apply “himas-batok himas” that is good words first, then the corrections then the good wards again.
It will work best for a team to develop in the Filipino the values of Lakas ng loob or self- confidence, kusang loob or initiative, utang na loob or gratitude, and tapat na loob or intergrity. In team, there is a need to reform first people inside the group, thus the need for “Kusang loob” and “loob ng puso.”
Finally, discipline must reign in a team, therefore there is a need for “tapat na loob.” Relationship in the Philippines can reciprocal or mutual (utang na loob) or empathetic (ilagay mo ang sarili mo sa kanyang katauhan upang maunawaan mo). There are two kinds of Filipino, one who has taken himself for granted or nasiraan ng loob and who thinks he is the only human being in the world or bilib sa sarili. Equilibrium must be maintained between self and the other by knowing oneself and knowing others. Our relationship with other are the following kinds:
1. Personal: I – Thou relationship – Person to Person
2. Functional : I – It Relationship - Person to thing (of the person) 3. Personal and : I – You Relationship – Human in a way yet functional because of necessity. Functional: The right relationship is to love persons and use things. The Filipino can use very much the value of the personalism to develop the right kind of relationship.