I. Cultural Overview A. Where is the culture located? This culture is located on the continent of Asia. B. What is the population size of the culture? 1,349,585,838 (July, 2013) C. What percentage of the population lives in rural areas, and what percentage lives in urban areas? Rural population-46.7% Urban population-53.5% D. What percentage of the population is involved in the economic activities listed below? Service-35.7% (2011) Industry-29.5%(2011) Agriculture-34.8% (2011) E. What form of government exists in the culture? Communist State government F. What types of religions exist in the culture? Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2% II. A Description of the Environment in Which the Culture Lives A. What are the prominent topographic features of the environment? There are mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east Mountains-Mount Everest, K2, Namjagbarwa Rivers- Yangtze, Yellow, Heilongjiang River Great Wall of China Three Gorges Dam
B. What are the climatic conditions( average temperatures and precipitation) exist in the region in which the culture lives? 54 degrees Fahrenheit, 30 inches per year C. What are the primary natural resources of the environment? coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) III. Major Economic Activities and Level of Technological Development A. How do members of the culture satisfy their need for food, water, clothing, and shelter?
People in rural areas grow most of their own food. They grow crops such as rice, wheat, corn, soybeans and tuber crops(root vegetables) People in urban areas gain their food by buying it in stores and markets. People in rural areas get their water from wells and rivers. People in cities buy their drinking water in stores People in rural areas build their own homes or in cave dwellings.
People in urban areas buy their homes and they are usually very small apartments. B. What economic activities exist in the culture? Describe the major economic activities in some detail. 1. Hunting and gathering- Chinese law prohibits hunting of protected animals. Hunting in china is more of a recreational activity than economic. 2. Simple or Mechanized agriculture- Many farms in China are tended by hand. Over the past 30 years, the chines have started promoting agricultural mechanization. Most crops in china are raised with fertilizers and pesticides. 3. Simple or mechanized industrial activities-
Most manufacturing in China is mechanized. China is the world leader in labor intensive manufacturing. China relies on energy-driven heavy industry to generate growth. Between 1980 and 2000 China relied mainly on light industry to generate growth. The shift from light industry to heavy industry has led to a huge appetite for resources and energy and produced huge amounts of pollution. China produces almost half of the world's shoes as well as clothes, household gadgets, toys, appliances, furniture, Christmas ornaments, utensils, and sunglasses. 4. Service related activities
C. Generally, what kinds of tools, machines, procedures, and techniques of members of the culture use to accomplish their economic activities and carry on their daily lives? In agriculture, farmers generally use pesticides, fertilizers, tractors, thresher, rakes, harvester. They irrigation systems such as drip irrigation and hydroponics. In industrial activities, people use sewing machines to make clothes and shoes. When making cars they use robots and assembly lines. IV. Social Organization
A. What types of groups have culture members formed and why do these groups exist? 1. Family Organization (nuclear or extended)- Chinese nuclear families consist of a mother, a father and a their children. Chinese are only allowed to have one-child do to the large population. Exceptions exist for different minorities and regions. Extended families consist of their nuclear family and everyone else you they consider family. Marriage requires a woman to move into her husband's family and to become a daughter-in-law as well as a wife.
The norm of patrilineal descent and the assumption that it is sons who bear the primary responsibility for their aged parents remain. These groups exist so that there can be a division of labor in the household, nurturing of the children, and socialization. 2. Work Groups- Work groups in China exist to produce and distribute the goods and services of the country. 3. Religious groups-Religious groups exist in China to assist in worship and the belief of a divine entity.
4. Educational Groups- Educational groups exist in China to inform people about ideas and skills that are valued in the Chinese culture. 5. Governmental Groups- Government groups in China exist to enact and enforce laws and to protect people rights. 6. Recreational Groups – Recreation groups in China exist to create constructive competition and for people to have fun. 7. Other(such as ethnic groups)- Ethnic groups exist in China to preserve the traditions and identity of the various ethnic groups of China, such as the Han Chinese ,Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, and Yao. V. Beliefs and Values and Key Concepts
A. What are some major religious beliefs within the culture and how do these beliefs influence individual and group behavior? Chinese Taoists believe in advocating a life of simplicity and naturalness and of noninterference with the course of natural events, in order to attain a happy existence in harmony with the Tao. This belief would lead Taoists to not be very greedy or plan ahead because they must live a simple life that does not interfere with the course of natural events.
B. What economic concepts have been used to organize the economy (free market economy, command economy, etc.) and how do these reflect the values and beliefs of the culture? China has a mixed economic system. It has some aspects of a communism and others of a command economy. . This reflects the values and beliefs of the culture because the government controls the economy. The people do not feel the need to interfere with the economy because of their tradtions.
C. What political concepts have been used to develop the culture’s governmental system (democracy, monarchy, communism, etc.) and how do these reflect the values and beliefs of the culture? The Chinese Communist government system reflects the values of the Taoist of balance and yin and yang because in communism things are equal.
D. What do culture members value? 1. material objects- Most material objects that Chinese value have to do with technology because they help them carry out their daily lives. 2. Social relationships- Chinese value social relationships with their friends, relatives, co-workers, teachers , etc. 3. Procedures, skills and techniques- Technical skills in the Chinese culture have become very important in today’s society. Technology is used both at home and at work, therefore being able to use it is essential.
4. Artistic ability- Artistic ability and musical skill are valued because art allows you to convey emotions and feelings. 5. Education-Education is highly valued in Chinese culture because it passes is on the culture to the next generation and educated you on how to take your place in society successfully. 6. Other- People value religious beliefs because they reinforce their belief in a deity and influence their everyday lives. VI. Communication A. What is the official language of the culture? Mandarin is the official language of the culture. B. Is the language both oral and written? Yes C. Do other languages exist in the culture? If so, what are these other languages? Other languages include Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka dialects. D. What types of artistic expression exist in the culture? Describe these in some detail. Artistic expression that exists in the culture is music, painting, scultpting, drawing, anime and manga. VII. Cultural History
A. Briefly describe three major events in the history of a culture. Answer the following questions: 1. What actually happened? The Great Wall of China was completed in 206 B.C. 2. Why did the event occur? The Great Wall of China was built for military defense, to keep out invaders. 3. How did the culture change as a result of the event? The Great Wall of China has become a symbol of the Chinese culture. The Great Wall of China was built to keep out invaders, therefore slowing down cultural diffusion of the Chinese with their enemies to the north. 1. What actually happened?
China passed one Child policy in 1979. 2. Why did the event occur? This event occurred due to the huge population of China. The government wanted to control the population growth. 3.How did the culture change as a result of the event? In the Chinese culture, males take care of their parents when they are old. Therefore, due to the one-child policy parents only want to have males. This is why there are a lot more males in China than females. 1. What actually happened?
Marco Polo arrived at China in 1274. 2. Why did the event occur? Marco Polo’s father was a merchant who spent a lot of time in Asia and who had met Kublai Khan. 3.How did the culture change as a result of the event? As a result of Marco Polo’s expeditions trade between Europe and China expanded, therefore cultural diffusion between Asia and Europe expanded as well.