Why did collective security faild to keep peace between 1920 and 1935? Collective security was an idea that peace could be preserved by acting together, to prevent one country attacking another. This idea failed between 1920 and 1935 due to the depression, The Manchuran dispute, and The Abyssinian crisis. collective security had a permanent court of international justice, arbitration, an investigation system, and economic sanctions. In the covenant of the leage of nations it was said that member states should refer their disputes to any of the previews mentioned.
The depression was an economic failure. The wall street crash in 1929lead to economic , social, and political problems. These social, economic, and political problems lead to to the rise of extremist groups, and the fragil and liberal goverments of 1920s found resurgent nationalist and aggressive political groups very dificult to restrict. The goverments were blamed for the crisis. In France a moderate government was replaced by a radicaal left wing government in 1932. In Britain iron and steel production fell by a 50 percent and politics shifted to right wing parties.
Germany had borrowed 9,000 millions during 1024 and 1929, the economy collapsed and the german unemployment stood at 1. 4 million in 1928and rose to 12 million in 1932. In Japan 50 % of the factories closed in 1931. This lead to self interest of the goverement. Goverments had problems inside so they did not wanted or could not take care of any other country problems, this lead to the collective’s security failure because of the self interest, also because the strategy of appeasing countries in response to aggresion became more realistic.
Economic santions were not palatable. The manchuran dispute also lead to the failure of collective security. Japan invaded manchuria (china) in 1931, japan and china were part of the leage. Collective security should be used in this case, but it ended up not been used. Instead the league of nations took some actions: it condemnd Japan’s actions and ordered the withdrawal of japanese troops . the japanese giverment agreed but their army refused, and this showed the lack of control, of the japanese civilian government over its military.
An investigation of the crisis was made, but it took more than a year to be reported. And finaly japan was ‘invited’ to give back manchuran to china. In response to all that the japanese said they they were leaving the leage.
This shows how the collective security by 1931 had starde to fail already. In this essay it was esplained why did collective security failed: collective security failed because of the depression that starde on 1929, the manchuran dispute that had as a protagonis to Japan, in 1931 were collective security was not even used.