Management refers to the act of getting people together so as to complete a set of desired goals. Some of the fields in management include leading, planning, staffing, directing, organizing and controlling a group of people (such as an organization) with the aim or objective of accomplishing a goal or a set of goals. A government on the other hand is an organization (political party) that is the governing authority of a nation or the system through which a governing body functions and exercises authority.
From the definitions above it is important to note that management is associated with controlling an organization whereas at the same time government is directly referred to as an organization. (Mejia and Luis 2008) Management seeks to organize and coordinate activities of a certain entity according to set out policies so as to achieve clearly defined objectives. Apart from the government (which is my area of interest), management is applied in numerous other fields such as in education institutions, small businesses, hospitals, research institutions, law firms and businesses ranging from small companies to large multinational companies.
Management is a major necessity not only in the areas mentioned above but also in personal life and experienced and carried out in many aspects of life and society. The use of management in government Government represents management in its broadest form. Management in government is administered throughout its hierarchy from the local county to the most powerful office in the White House such as it is the case in the United States. Governments throughout the world take many forms ranging from democratic ones such as that of the United States to dictatorial ones like Saddam Hussein’s Iraq.
Other examples of government include monarchies, religious governments, and state tyrannies among others. Forms of governments may overlap though that for instance in some countries you may find a combination of religious and democratic systems. Just like there are different forms of governance so are various types of management techniques. The main objectives of the government are maintenance of security and public order so that people can have a better environment in their pursuit of happiness. Management therefore would be geared towards formulating and implementing ways through which the above objectives can be met.
Other objectives but very important roles of the government include: • Economic security: governments are supposed to manage the economy so that people achieve a comfortable standard of living and make the nation as wealthy as possible. • Defense: a government is supposed to ensure the peace and security of its citizens and protect the nation from foreign attacks. • Social security: governments yearn to reduce the gap between the wealthy and the poor, enable senior citizens have a comfortable life even after retirement and ensure basic services are available.
• The government also plays a major role in contributing to the provision of education and health care to its citizens. • Environmental security: the management of environmental goods such as forests, water bodies and so on is largely in the hands of the government. For instance the government of the United States is faced with the daunting task of coming up with ways preventing climate change by using suitable mechanisms of managing environmental entities. (Mejia and Luis 2008) One unique aspect of management in government is that it lasts for a stipulated period of time.
In democratic nations the ruling administration is elected to serve for a number of years mostly ranging from four to six years. Most nations such as the United States the president is allowed to serve a maximum of two terms. This means that a new management team or a new administration is expected to assume office soon after the old administration completes its term. This means that management techniques change from time to time as new management teams are elected by the citizens.
However, the government consists of some permanent personnel who do not vacate office when a political term ends. This mainly comprises members of the civil service such as judges, teachers among others. These are permanent government employees and they retain their offices irrespective of the president or political power in office. Some administrators are appointed directly by the elected leaders and are likely to leave office soon after power changes hands from one government to the other. (Mejia and Luis 2008)
The government in its management is characterized by division of labor whereby specific tasks are allocated to specific sectors and individuals. That is why the United States government has many fields of governance or administration with numerous subdivisions in every field. The American police force for instance is just one of the branches mandated to provide public order and within it there are many other subdivisions given specific tasks to specialize in such as drug enforcement and so on.
The same scenario is duplicated along all other divisions of the government such as justice, treasury, and environment among others. The government in its managing strategy is involved in following managerial functions: 1. Planning-it is up to the government to come up with a set of policies to that are supposed to act as general guidelines to the management and implementation of its aims and objectives. For instance the president Obama’s government has come up with a different set of policies from that of former president Bush. (Mejia and Luis 2008)
2. Organizing- This step of management usually comes after planning and involves assigning tasks to individuals, grouping of tasks into various departments, allocating authority to individuals and their respective departments and finally allocating resources. After assuming power, president Obama made key appointments to form his government while at the same time forming new departments and giving them authority to deal with special problems. 3. Leadership-leadership may be taken to mean the same thing as management but that is not always the case.
Leadership is important in management since whereas in management one rules by the virtue of his office, leadership dwells much on influence. Therefore, the respective leaders of various offices in government are supposed to exert not only authority but influence as well. This influence would be more useful if it is positive and exerted not only to the government workers but the general public as well. Leaders with charisma such as Obama are well suited for this purpose. 4.
Coordination-the government comprises of numerous departments and very many people at its service. It is important that harmony among those departments is ensured so that they are able to work well since they are interdependent of each other. Failure of coordination would lead to major problems in governance and could even lead to its collapse. 5. Control- this is carried out through other managerial roles such as planning and organizing and involves setting the required standards, measuring performance and making the final decisions.
Control gives the general guidelines that the juniors are supposed to follow and rewards or punishments they are expected to after carrying out a given task. 6. Staffing- This includes job analysis, recruitment of individuals in governments and also their dismissal or termination. Since for instance the United States government has millions of employees, this function of management is very important. 7. Motivation-the government makes effort to uplift the morale of its employees so that they are able to achieve the set out objectives and in time.
This may be achieved through ways such as increasing their salaries, providing a good working environment and so on. (Mejia and Luis 2008) Conclusion As shown above, management and governance go hand in hand. The government may be the most important institution where effective management is needed because the absence of this means the society will collapse and thereafter not so many things will be there to be managed. References Mejia G. , Luis R. (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York. USA. Pp 5-23.