Government Theory

Democracy is a form of government elected by the people, for the people and of the people. In democratic form of government, people are both rulers as well as ruled bringing formulation of self governing political unity but there is a slight difference between the democracy and polity as explained by Aristotle; In polity, people have to follow rules of the laws whereas in democracy, will of the people is supreme even above the laws. (Cameron, 2007) On a broader level, there are main three theories explaining constitutional democracy. These are rationalist theory of democracy, liberal democracy and deliberative democracy.

The rationalistic theory of electoral democracy owes its origin to Joseph Schumpeter and Anthony Downs but more adherently it owes its expression to the work of Adam Prezeworski. According to Prezeworski, “Democracy is a system in which parties lose elections. There are parties, there is competition organized by rules, there are winners and losers. ” (Cameron, 2007, p. 3) He states that in democratic regime, results are unknown and in the election process there is always an uncertainty. The basis of whole election lies on the different ideologies, and concepts that could lead to the conflict and strives.

In the election process, there are two or more parties contesting for two or more seats. There is a scope of cooperation among parties due to the fact that no one has any control over the consequences. There is uncertainty in the complete environment of the political atmosphere with no one having least knowledge where the waves of the air would take and go. The attributes like responsiveness, accountability and broad participation are not taken into account in democracy. In the democratic set up of the government, there are two types of offices: Executive and Legislative.

Democracy is a kind of rules and legislatures and according to Prezeworski, “most rules emerge in equilibrium: they are but descriptions of equilibrium strategies” (Cameron, 2007, p. 5) No one can change the rules but if the President having legislative and executive functions together, she would be able to change the rules. Some theorists ascertain the liberal democracy as the form of government where the elections play a central role and have a belief that it is the most important condition for democracy. Linz and Stepan posits their view that “… no regime should be called a democracy unless its rulers govern democratically.

” (Cameron, 2007, p. 8) If elected executives breach the rules laid down by the constitution, snatch the rights of minorities and individuals and does not follow the rules of the law, those nations are not considered as democratic. To make the democratic regime function smoothly, it is all the more important for the elected government to fruitfully implement the policies independently. In the liberal democracy, parties contesting the elections have the right to contest according to their will or they can formulate their own ideologies. In this way liberal democracy is far beyond the electoral democracy.

The third theory is deliberative democracy, which is considered to be one of the most important developments to the recent democratic theories. It is a political system whereby those persons who exercise power are answerable to the public for their actions, give them the reasons for the same and can avoid criticism. According to Gutmann and Thompson, “the forums in which we conduct our political discussion should be designed so as to encourage officials to justify their actions with moral reasons, and to give other officials as well as citizens the opportunity to criticize those reasons.

” (Cameron, 2007, p. 14) The governing powers give the reasons to avoid any criticism so that accountability is retained and maintained. Deliberative democracy is related to the understanding of the rules and regulations formulated within the framework of the governing bodies and following of their practices. It entails to bring about fundamental changes in the relationship between the rules that are followed according to the law, the different and varied powers and constitutionalism and general democratic pattern.