Chon-Kyun Kim (2008) theorized that public administration systems have differential responses to the challenges of globalization and being restricted by emerging global forces. Accordingly, several developing countries have lesser benefits from globalization due to significant difficulties in the international market. To cite, the drawback of developing countries to integrate their public administration system is hampered by having lesser resources and inadequate economic or political structure to be positioned in the global scale.
Meanwhile, developed and highly industrialized countries obtain the benefit of globalization as a result of “transitioned public administration system” (Kim, 2008). It may be perceived that the impact of free-market capitalism as equated by globalization competes in the performance of economic and political structure, from which public administration has a critical role in achieving production efficiency of a country. On the other hand, since developing countries are unable to compete in the production side of its economy, the political structure is weakened to negotiate on the global trade.
Like for instance is the “competition on produce-reproduce-distribute scheme” under the World Trade Organization Government Agreement on Tariff and Trade (WTO-GATT) which limits the developing countries to participate in the global supply chain (Kim, 2008). In ‘Das Kapital’ has quoted that “the definitive source of new profit and value-adding is employers’ compensation to the workers that creates the market value and capacity of labor” (Marx, 1867). In retrospection, globalization is production-based and performance-driven, equating the efficiency of a country to compete in the demands of global economies.
Thus, public administration plays a vital role in making efficient and effective the performance of country’s economy, but the fast changing modalities in the global scale affects the public administration system. This perception can be equated by the application of public administration system that is involved in developing or improving the performance of agriculture sector in a country (Yergin & Stanislaw, 2002; in Kim, 2008). Kim (2008) pointed out that the revolutionized development of information technology accompanies the developing countries to develop the “agriculture society” and align to the global trends.
As argued by Kim (2008), the assimilating effect of information technology has eventually affected the “human behavior” in implementing the governance. However, “power division” occurs in the utilization of obsolete or advanced type of global communication system, in which only the developed countries are able to acquire the sophisticated and latest technologies that are integral in their public administration system. As exemplified by Kim (2008), the sophisticated or latest technologies being used by developed countries in their public administration system represent the fiscal management or financial control in the global industries.
For example are the unlimited or “borderless” financial transactions in the global supply chain, in which capital budget of the government are electronically transacted by banks and other agencies that engages on E-Commerce. In which case, the administration of such transaction [as a public or government international program] accesses the global governments. To cite, globalization is consequently dividing the worlds’ dominant and incapable governments with regard to public administration that utilizes information technology, wherein economic trade is adequately and capably competitive only for the developed countries.
While developing countries in Asia, Africa and the Middle East restricts their governmental capabilities to access the “cyber administration” of government functions in the global scale. Evidently, public administration system must adopt the technological utilities of the 21st century in order to pattern the domestic governance that respond to the means of global competitiveness, of which to retain the choice of going global or domestically efficient to enable sustainable productivity in the economic, political and cultural perspective of national development and governmental functions. Theoretical underpinning and function of bureaucracy
Bureaucracy can be briefly defined in layman’s definition as the structured hierarchy in the functions of individuals within an organization. Specifically in a government organization, the administrative functions or positions are bestowed with authority and works according to the guidelines or existing organizational rules and regulations. The relationship of the administrative function is attributed by the “laddered” or hierarchical procedures, like for instance is the approval and implementation of government programs or projects that comes from the top to bottom authorities where deliberations and actions have been processed.