Globally, most of the countries have local law and legislations that governs their emissions into the atmosphere. However, most of them are guided by the UNFCC and the Kyoto Protocol. EU has applied a totally market based system to force the member states and individual industries to reduce their emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing the emissions below the established limits attracts tax reduction for most of the products and raw materials in EU economic region.
UK has emphasized that all the companies that are involved with production of harmful emissions to the atmosphere be fixed with cleaning systems that reduces or removes the harmful elements from the waste stream. Most of the heavy vehicles in the country have been fixed with catalytic converters that trap most of the nitrogen and sulfur oxides from their exhausts pipes. Besides, other countries like Netherlands have assimilated a system where all the machinery systems being made or imported into the country are required to have high levels of efficiency that guarantees minimal emissions into the atmosphere (Wagner, 2007).
Germany denies establishment of industries in most of the residential areas to prevent the effects of pollution to the people. 6. Cost benefit analysis of the intervention ? Company Notably, emissions control has expanded benefits and costs to different stakeholders involved in the process. To the company reducing its emissions, it has to employ better systems by possibly buying and installing new machineries. Shell Oil Company has indicated the massive costs it would incur in replacing the machinery at Bridgeport facility in order to meet the required standards (Shell Oil Company, 2008).
To add to that, punitive measures involves extra costs by the company. This amount could have been used in other areas like improving customer value. Lack of effective system could also lead to closure of a facility for upgrading in order to meet the set standards. However, meeting the set standards has been cited to attract more consumers and raise earnings through carbon credits. ? Citizens and the government As indicated earlier, effective emissions reduce the availability of the upper respiratory inducing emissions. Consequently, it reduces their overall suffering, reduces their spending on medical bills and promotes healthier living.
The government reduces its overall spending on health and puts the funds in alternative projects that can assist the people assume better lifestyles. Generally, it is an icon of stability for the government. In Netherlands, most of the industries are fully compliant to the high standards requirements which make the country act as a haven for international organizations. ? Ecosystems Effective control measures for emissions are an indicator for concern to the natural environment. Effective control of these emissions is a direct notion of control for the related problems like desertification, global warming and climate change.
It is therefore a recipe for biodiversity conservation and inter and intra-generational equity enhancements. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature, climate change is a major factor that leads to rising of threats for the biodiversity by making them shift to the nest Appendix of the Red Data Book. Through various measures applied under the Kyoto protocol, it has become possible to restore the overall sanctity of the natural system by enhancing the overall resilience of vegetation and forests to raise carbon uptake (Price, 2009).