Kant states (1993, Pg 99, 2) "Act in such a way that you always treat humanity... never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end". This shows that the organisation treated the woman merely as "a sex object" and not as a human with feelings, emotions and capable of aims which they believe so deeply in.
The cost for the organisation by acting unethically totaled to a compensation of i?? 2. 2 million, which was very high and therefore gives an example to other organisations not to act in these unethical manners and it is essential for employees to understand a.Sexual stereotyping is the third main issue in sex discrimination, Vandendorpe (2001, page 210, 8) defines sexual stereotyping as "the assignment of emotional and ability characteristics to all men and women, solely on the basis of their physical sexual identity".
This shows that it occurs when certain characteristics on the foundation of gender are allocated. In one article the stereotype for female 'executive are as single, childless and driven'. However women are usually stereotyped that childcare and nursing is a women's work, where as the man's work is out on the building site.
However, perceptions are changing and have considerably changed as an article (2003, The Guardian, 2) on how a male nurse was paid less than his female colleagues and he was the only man in a 12 strong team of theatres nurses at Walton hospital, Liverpool. He completed the same work but was paid less than the women. During selection and recruitment selection of a potential employee must be carried out on an equality bases (2000, page 144, 10). Therefore stereotyping can occur in this type of situation as women may be perceived as passive and too dependent.
Men and women should not be looked at their stereotype roles instead should be promoted on experience, academic knowledge and be able to fulfill the criteria that the job requires. The Kantian approach again signifies that humans should be treated with respect and "good will is the only thing that is good in itself" (1991, page 75, 9) and therefore it is morally wrong to discriminate against certain candidates on grounds of unrelated to their fitness for the job.
Kant's ethics gives us standards that do not depend on results; instead it helps moral decision making and acting on a principle and from a sense of duty. The employee was concerned with justice and gaining his basic human rights. Josephson (2001, Pg92, 6) suggests people behave unethically because they are insensitive and unaware of others therefore selfishness and defective reasoning leads to such unethical behaviour. Policies and legislations are in force to protect employees and the organisation in certain situations.
Affirmative action is a policy that acknowledges certain individual and groups that have been disadvantaged and therefore try to readdress the balance. Special schemes can be set up to assist the disadvantaged groups; a company may launch a publicity drive to attract individuals from different ethnic groups. Legal actions are there to guarantee firstly that negative rights aren't suspended from any individual or groups within an organisation and for an organisation to show that positive rights are reinstated within the workforce by demonstrating that equal opportunities are being provided between men and women.
As with the case of Littlewoods (1994, Page 298, 1) John Moores initiated an affirmative action programme to allow staff from minority backgrounds to be employed in the Liverpool, Church Street. The rethinking of the firm's policies with staff training allowed staff to have understood the meaning of equality and allowing other minorities to work together on the shop floor and not be discriminated because of the colour of their skin. The balance of the workforce was restored and customers from other backgrounds shopped there more.
This signifies the Kantian belief that humans should have more respect within the workforce no matter the colour of their skin. They should have equal rights during recruitment and the duty to make changes to ensure that the ends are better. Contract Compliance is a policy which tackles unfairness by discriminating in favour of enterprises which accomplish equal opportunity targets that show contemplation of equality during employment and recruitment selection. (2003, Government Website, 12)
The Equal Opportunities Commission and The Commission for Racial Equality were established to promote and maintain equality opportunity within the workplace and as part of this responsibility; they produce codes of practice which provide guidelines to employers and employees on the meaning of the legislation. It ensures the compliance of the law, The Sex Discrimination Act (1975) Equal Pay Act (1974) and many other acts are broken up into certain segments which provide the employers and employees the protection within the organisation.
(2003, Government Website, 11). In conclusion the examples shown in this essay provide evidence how discrimination affects an individual or a group of individuals within a workforce. Unethical behaviour carried out by organisations affects individuals greatly and therefore they believe that their basic human rights have been breached and by taking organisations to court also shows the public how companies operate therefore companies are liable to pay compensation and readdress the shareholders grievances.