Frederick Jackson

Frederick Turner developed the influential frontier thesis that guided several generations of scholars and students in their understanding of the distinctive characteristics of American history. His view of the frontier as the westward-moving source of the nation’s democratic politics, open society, unrestricted economy, and rugged individualism, far removed from the corruptions of urban life, gripped the popular imagination as well.

Turner’s description of the frontier experience exaggerated the homogenizing effect of the environment and virtually ignored the role of women, African Americans, Indians, and Asians in shaping the diverse human geography of the western United States.

POOLS/TRUSTS (1869-1899):

As businesses grow, owners sought to integrate all processes of production and distribution into single companies, thus producing even larger firms. Other joined forces with their competitors in pools or trusts in an effort to dominate entire industries. This process of industrial combination and concentration transformed the nation’s social order as well as aroused widespread dissent and the emergence of an organized labor movement.

THE RISE OF BIG BUSINESS (1869-1899):

The Industrial Revolution created huge corporations that came to dominate the economy as well as political and social life during the 19th century. A nationwide shortage of labor served as a powerful incentive, motivating inventors and business owners to develop more efficient, labor-saving machinery. Technological innovations not only created new products but also brought about improved machinery and equipment, spurring dramatic advances in productivity. As the volume of production increased, the process developed standardized machinery and parts, which became available nationwide.

A national government-subsidized network of railroads connecting the East and West coasts played a crucial role in the development of related industries and in the evolution of a national market for goods and services, and industries in the U.S. also benefitted from an abundance of power sources that were inexpensive compared with those of the other nations of the world.

THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1870-1914):

The Second Industrial Revolution was sparked by an array of innovations and inventions in the production of metals, machinery, chemicals, and foodstuffs. While the First Industrial Revolution helped accelerate the growth of early American economy, the second transformed the economy and the society into a modern urban-industrial form. The Second Industrial Revolution involved three main developments-the creation of an interconnected national transportation and communication network, the use of electric power, and the systematic application of scientific research to industrial processes.

(BUILDING THE) TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD(S) (MAY 10, 1869):

Railroads opened the trans-Mississippi West to economic development, connected raw materials to factories, and in doing so created an interconnected national market for the country’s goods and produce. The Transcontinental Railroads built across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains ran through sparsely settled land, serving the purpose of binding the country together.

Building the Transcontinental Railroads tied a nation together, changed the economic and political landscape, and enabled the United States to emerge as a world power. The transcontinentals soon sprouted numerous truck lines, which in turn encouraged the building of other transcontinentals. The result was a massive railroad-building boom that lasted into the 1890s and stimulated the rest of the economy.

INVENTIONS SPUR MANUFACTURING (1867-1888):

Technological advances altered the lives of ordinary people far more than politics or intellectual developments. The Industrial period was marked by technological and industrial invention that influenced and affected everyaspect of human life. Various examples of these inventions include electricity, the telephone, typewriter, and vacuum cleaner.

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL & THOMAS EDISON (1876, 1879):

Alexander Bell helped many people by inventing the telephone. Because of his invention, people can now communicate across the world within seconds rather than wait a couple weeks to receive a letter. Thomas Edison’s is most well known for his invention of the light bulb. Without Edison, there would not have been electricity. In addition, Edison later invented the entire electric system so he could power all his light bulbs, motors and other appliances that soon followed.

ROCKEFELLER, CARNEGIE, MORGAN, & VANDERBILT (1870, 1874, 1935, 1873):

Rockefeller was the owner of Standard Oil, a completely dominated oil industry at the time and founded University of Chicago and Rockefeller University. Carnegie led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry. Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. Vanderbilt donated $1 million to build and endow Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee.

LABOR CONDITIONS & ORGANIZATION (1860-1890):

The continuing demand for workers was filled by new groups entering the workforce at the bottom: immigrant above all, but also growing numbers of women and children. Because of a long-term decline in prices and the cost of living, real wages and earnings in manufacturing went up 50 percent between 1860 and 1890 and another 37 percent from 1890 to 1914.The average hourly wage in manufacturing was about $3.50, and the average workweek was 59 hours, which amounted to nearly 6 ten-hour workdays.

CHILD LABOR (1880-1900):

Parents desperate for income believed they had no choice but to put their children to work. In most cases, parents were often so desperate for income that they forged work permits for their children or taught them to lie about their age to keep a job.

Children as young as eight were laboring alongside adults twelve hours a day, six days a week. This meant they received little to no education and had little time for play or parental nurturance. Factories, mills, and mines are dangerous places, especially for children as they suffer three times as money on-the-job accidents as adult workers, and respiratory diseases were common in the unventilated buildings.

RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 (JULY 14, 1877):

The major causes of the Railroad Strike of 1877 included profiteering by the railroad companies, wage reduction, and job cuts. The railroad industry was booming during the 1870s and was a major source of employment. During this time period, many Americans were searching for work and the railroad companies began cutting pay in order to increase profits. With so many workers available, there was no job security for railroad workers.

The Great Railroad Strike was the first major interstate strike in American history that demonstrated potential union strength and the need for tighter organization.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Tindall, George Brown., and David E. Shi. America: A Narrative History. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.