Foundation of Spanish, English, French & Dutch Colonies in North America

#1: Who were the earliest inhabitants of the Americas? * About 14,000 years ago (12,000 BCE), people started to migrate across BERINGIA to Americas * By 8,000 BCE, they reached to Tierra del Fuego

* 3 waves came from Asia, 1 from Polynesia (to Easter Island) around 300 AD, 1 from Scandinavia (Norsemen) around 900 AD

#2: What are 2 characteristics of Neolithic American culture? * Clovis tip spear and climate change killed off most large animals (woolly mammoths—like Fred Flintstone would eat) * Some Americans converted to agriculture here (the Neolithic Revolution)—this was around 4000-1500 BCE * Was this earlier or later than other places? * Diseases: Eurasians with large population centers (cities) developed immunities; Americans with small population centers (few cities) did not—hence the later demographic catastrophe when the European arrived

#3: Name and describe 3 Major Native American Areas before Columbus * Meso to South America * Aztecs (Tenochtitlan, chinampas, monumental architecture, human sacrifice) * Incas (non-literate, but had decimal system, superior communication system of runners, accounting device called quipu) * American Southwest

* Hohokam, Anasazi, Pueblo * Superior irrigation systems; astronomy * North American Mound Builders (Mississippi Valley) * Ohio and Mississippi River regions * Buried their rulers in these mounds, along with followers who would serve him in afterlife

#4: How did Europe compare to the rest of the world around 1400? * 1400: Europe “was at the edge of world commerce, not the center” * China was the economic power * Europe got knowledge of China from Marco Polo * Cheng Ho (Zheng He) explored around 1420s, but China soon stopped—Why?) * Islam was expanding * Ottomans took Constantinople in 1453 * Islam spread to Indonesia and Southeast Asia

#5: Why did Europeans start to explore in the late 1400s? * Improvements in technology (result of Renaissance curiosity) * Desire to spread Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) * Desire to expand trade with East and get rich * Circumvent Ottomans by going around Africa (Henry the Navigator); or going west (Columbus) * New nation-states/monarchies needed $ (gold/silver) to build their countries (had to pay armies and bureaucrats)

#6: What initial impact did Europeans have on the Americas? * Enslaved Indians (encomienda system) * Later replaced with black Africans * Cultural misunderstandings developed * Both sides regarded each other as barbaric * Demographic catastrophe (90% decrease) * Indians had no immunity to smallpox; little immunity to measles * 1520: 15 million Native Americans * 1620: 700,000 Native Americans

#7: How did the Spanish administer their colonies? * At first, individual conquistadores would rule an area * Then Spain asserted control * Council of the Indies in Seville * Spanish America divided into 3 vice-royalties (New Spain, Peru, New Grenada), which were then sub-divided into audencias

* Viceroys ruled from newly built cities, like Havana, Mexico City, Lima * Centralized in theory (Spain ruled), but slow communication gave viceroys a lot of leeway * Encomienda system allowed encomendero to exploit Indians of his district for labor—and Indians were abused and killed off

#8: Why was Europe so dominant over the Native Americans? * Geography * Europe: east-west axis allowed for better exchange of ideas and goods (climate) * Americas: north-south axis that inhibited exchange because of climate variations * Isolation of Americas

* Eurasia had more people, therefore more ideas (which spread easier) * Paper, compass, gunpowder from China; steel * Exposure and resistance to disease * Europe: more people = more diseases; more diseases = more exposure to disease and more resistance * Americas: fewer people and fewer cities; this meant less exposure to disease, which meant less resistance * Demographic catastrophe

Part II: The French and Dutch Colonies

#9: What motivated the French to explore North America? * Northwest Passage: a northwest route through Americas to Asia (google earth)

* 1524: French sponsored Italian Verrazano (New York Harbor area)—Google earth * 1534-1543: Jacques Cartier makes three voyages, but gives up (St. Lawrence River) * 1608-1635: Samuel de Champlain makes 11 voyages; establishes Quebec in 1608 on St. Lawrence River * 1625: French Crown declares Catholic as the official religion of New France

#10: What characterized early New France (1524-1663) religious and economically? • Religiously – Attempts at religious tolerance b/w French Huguenots and Catholics (Champlain) • Politiques (politics over religion) – BUT: Catholicism dominated • Jesuit missionaries to convert Indians • Allowed Indians to maintain culture • Assimilated into Indian culture • Protected Indians from French fur traders • Economically – Prior to 1663 • Trade and coureurs de bois – Fur traders who often exploited Indians – Clashed with Jesuits – After 1663 • Farming developed in St Lawrence Valley – Wheat • Population 4X to 15,000 • Centered in Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal • Some moved to Illinois country

#11: How did the French administer their colonies? * 1524-1663: little control by French crown * Coureurs de bois and missionaries were unsupervised * 1663: Louis XIV assumes direct control of New France * 2 officials ruled New France * Governor general (military/diplomatic affairs)

* All promotion through merit (not $) * Local leaders with knowledge of land commanded French soldiers * Bonuses given to couples with large families * Fathers of teenagers fined if they (teens) didn’t marry * Intendant (administered justice)

* Lawyers banned and legal costs therefore cut * Taxes were low * Church tithe cut in half

#12: Which colonies were most valuable to France? * Quebec, Three Rivers, Montreal were centers of French Canada (Google) * BUT: Caribbean sugar islands it eventually got were probably more valuable * Saint Domingue (Haiti) * Guadeloupe * Martinique

#13: What motivated the Dutch (the Netherlands) to explore? * Profit * 1600s: Dutch Golden Age * Cities and provinces controlled by wealthy merchants, who looked to make $ * Dutch govt started Dutch East India and Dutch West India Companies to explore * Hired Englishman Henry Hudson to explore present-day NYC area in 1609 (Hudson River) * 1620s: Dutch WIC claims Hudson River Valley

* 1626: New Amsterdam founded (NYC)

#14: Why did Dutch influence wane in the Hudson River Valley and New Amsterdam areas? * Largely b/c of English encroachments * English Puritans started to settle Westchester County, Long Island * Called “Yankees” by Dutch (“Land pirates”) * Yankees sided with English when they attacked Dutch in 1664-65 * New Amsterdam re-named New York

Part III: The English Colonies A) Mid-Atlantic colonies B) New England colonies C) Restoration colonies

Part IIIA: The Mid-Atlantic Colonies

#15: What was the Virginia Company? * A joint stock company chartered to colonize North America between 34th and 45th parallels * 2 headquarters * Plymouth, England (tried Maine, gave up) * London (Chesapeake Bay, founded Jamestown) * Investors hoped to find gold, silver, northwest passage, cure for syphilis

#16: What problems did Jamestown encounter? * Dysentery and typhoid fever (swampy area) * Too many gentlemen and specialized craftsmen/not enough farmers * Lack of leadership * Caught in Indian wars

#17: What changes were instituted in Jamestown after 1612 that made it more successful? * Imported mild strain of tobacco that made colony profitable (Rolfe and Pocahontas) * Diversified the economy (silkworms, grape vines—which failed) * Common law replaced martial law

* House of Burgesses * 1st legislative body in the colonies * Head-right system * colonists received 50 acres for each person whose passage to Virginia he financed

#18: How was Jamestown after 1612 (and all English colonies in general) administered differently than the Spanish or French colonies?

* English generally allowed more self-rule * Mayflower Compact in Plymouth * House of Burgesses in Virginia * Elections of governor and reps. In Massachusetts Bay colony

BUT: only male property owners could vote

#19: What does the map on page 58 tell you about the Virginia Company land grant? * It was huge * It assumed the English would colonize all the way to the Pacific (distance unknown at that time) * it assumed conflict with France, Spain * Why?

#20: What was the major difference between the Virginia and Maryland colonies? * Maryland: founded * as place for persecuted English Catholics * Lord Baltimore given “sole proprietorship” * Virginia: founded for * profit * persecuted English Protestants * ruled by stockholders, later taken over by king (royal colony)

#21: What 2 steps did Lord Baltimore take that showed greater religious tolerance in Maryland?

* Conceded a bicameral legislature to the colony, knowing that Protestants would dominate the elected assembly and Catholics would control the appointed posts—GREAT EXAMPLE OF RELIGIOUS COMPROMISE

* Toleration Act of 1649: granted freedom of worship to all Christians (but not Jews)

* Establishes idea of religious toleration in colonies

#22: What was family life like in the Chesapeake region? * Lower life expectancy than in England * About 45 as opposed to 50s, women rarely made it to 40 (childbirth) * Most women who could produce children stayed unwed until after childbearing years (because they couldn’t wed while they were indentured) * Typical ages at marriage: groom—30s, bride—20-22

* Husbands typically died before wives (then remarried) * Weak patriarchy (men died younger) * Focus on kin (not immediate family)

#23: Did slavery develop immediately in Virginia? * No * Slavery developed only as labor shortage intensified (with labor intensive tobacco) * 3 sources of labor * Slaves * Indentured servants (master paid for passage; worked to pay off debt 4-7 years) * Headright system

#24: What sorts of problems did Virginia eventually have in the late 1600s? * Growing divisions b/w western farmers and wealthy landowners/rulers of tidewater * Result: Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)

* Bacon/farmers said * Tidewater elite had too much econ/political power * Elite not protecting farmers against Indians * The revolt * Bacon/farmers massacred frontier Indians, defeated governor’s forces, burned Jamestown * Stopped when Bacon died of dysentery, rebel army collapsed

Part IIIB: The New England Colonies

#25: Who were the Puritans, and why did they come to Plymouth? * Plymouth (1620): the Puritans were Separatists, and they came for purely religious reasons (not economic, like many in Virginia) * Church of England wasn’t Protestant enough (too many remnants of Catholicism)

* BUT: two-thirds of those on Mayflower were NOT Separatists—many of them DID come for economic reasons

* To make sure they had no problems, they all agreed to Mayflower Compact —to abide by decisions of majority

#26: What did the Puritans mean by “City on a Hill?” * They wanted to form a model city for all people around the world to follow

#27: When did the Puritans come to the Massachusetts Bay colony? How many were there? How did they make their living? * 1629-1630 * Founded Boston * About 1,000 * Made their living doing English things * Raising livestock * Growing English wheat * Growing corn * Around 1650, started trading with West Indies

#28: How did the health of settlers in New England compare to that of the Chesapeake Bay settlers? * Much better * 6-10 children reached maturity * No new diseases * Higher life expectancy * 20% lived past age 80 * Thus, society was more patriarchal (fathers didn’t die off)

#29: Why did some people leave Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay colony to settle new colonies in New England? * b/c Puritan leaders tended to be intolerant of those who questioned them; they believed in merging of Church/state; would banish dissidents * Roger Williams (Providence); Anne Hutchinson (Portsmouth); united to found Rhode Island with religious toleration * Thomas Hooker (Hartford) drew up Fundamentals Orders of Connecticut, 1st constitution in colonies; joined New Haven to form Connecticut colony in 1665

#30: What was the Half-Way covenant? Why was it created? * created to address the problem of too many 2nd generation Puritans drifting away from the church’s influence (secularization of New England society) * Required baptism * Those who accepted * Could become church members (therefore saved) * Did not have to devote themselves to strict principles of the church * Could not vote on church issues

Part IIIC: The Restoration Colonies

#31: What were the Restoration colonies? * Founded during English Restoration (of Charles II in 1660) * All were proprietary (owned by someone) * All tried to attract colonists from older colonies because importing them from Europe was too expensive (servants in West Indies): How did they attract people? * Made it easy to acquire land

* Offered strong guarantees of political and religious liberties (toleration or full religious liberty) * They foreshadowed the diversity that characterized the US after 1790

#32: Name the 6 Restoration colonies. * South Carolina * North Carolina * New York * New Jersey * Pennsylvania * Delaware (offshoot of Pennsylvania)

#33: On what crop did South Carolina eventually rely? * Rice

#34: What portion of the South Carolina population was African slave? * By 1730, about 66%, or two-thirds

#35: On what crop did North Carolina eventually rely? * Tobacco * Result: NC’s economy was less dependent on slavery, b/c the tobacco farms tended to be smaller

#36: Did New York become entirely English in its population after 1660? * No * Most Dutch people stayed after the English took over in the 1660s (they took over because they claimed it was theirs under the Virginia Charter) * The English were tolerant, assured them religious toleration, allowed them to keep property, language

#37: Who originally settled Pennsylvania? * William Penn * Received grant of land in Americas b/c English king owed his dad a huge debt * Founded Philadelphia (planned grid design) * The Quakers * Pacifists * denounced oathtaking * Uncomfortable with slavery * No clergy: anyone allowed to speak in Church

#38: How did the Quakers view their children? * Innocents in whom the Light would shine if only they could be protected from worldly corruption (not tiny sinners whose wills had to be broken with severe discipline) * families more affectionate

* Tried to acquire land for all their children * Tried to limit family size so as to give more love to children

#39: What elements contributed to Pennsylvania’s success? * It was a planned community (numerous drafts to outline govt) * Penn was very cooperative with Indians (they called him Miquon, which meant “Quill”, which was used as a pen) * Freedom of worship for all

* Including Jews !!!!!!

#40: What was the last colony, and why was it founded? * Georgia, 1732 * Led by James Oglethorpe, founded Savannah; was proprietary colony * No rum * No slavery * 1752, became royal colony; more prosperity when rum, slavery bans dropped * Founded for 2 main reasons * Defensive buffer against invasion from Spanish in Florida (threat to South Carolina) * To relieve overcrowding in English debtors prisons

Possible Essays

1. Analyze the differences between the French settlements in New France/Great Lakes region and the English colonies in New England in the 17th century in terms of TWO of the following:

Politics Religion Economic development

2. “Throughout the colonial period, economic concerns had more to do with the settling of British North America than did religious concerns.” Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to economic and religious concerns.

3. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in TWO of the following regions:

New England Chesapeake Bay Middle Atlantic