It is believed that there is a minute relationship between the public opinion and the working of the democracies of the west. It is observed that both public officials and common men usually don’t bother to study public policy unless his daily routine is disturbed from it. Public policy can only be changed or designed according to the demands by influencing the decision making body. Who have the right to make final decision in the formulation and implementation of any policy. In the past there were representative groups, which use to bring forth the needs of the local people to the government official.
But nowadays, media has taken the place of these representative groups. Media not only affect and persuade the public officials but in most cases it also serves as the representative of the government. It tends to affect the mind set and decisions of the people according to the demand of the officials. (David Kennamer) Both Public opinion and media have a deep impact upon the public policy making and implementation. The prospect to design a vast public policy declines with the decline in the time span of decision- making.
The more the time spans of decision making the more vast and effective will the public policy. (David, 1995) Policy making depends upon the needs of the people therefore government have to design its expenditure accordingly. Today, America is spending several dollars upon wars but the fact is that it is not the demand of it people instead there a variety of field like health ,education, etc which demand more deep and indebt policy making. Today, the decision making body in politics is based upon the theory that each need is an out growth of the demand.
It means that if the demand is fulfilled the need will also be filled. The same theory is being fallowed upon by the economists and the feudalists collectively. Hence, one can say that today all the politicians and the government officials will base their decision upon the needs of the society. The adoption of the “laissez faire approach” the best remedy government can adopt today to tackle with the growing problem of appropriate decision making while formulating a public policy. (Timothy, 2007) Sometime rapid responses also lead to the decision in policy making.
In other words one can say needs take the form of actions and these actions then lead to the change in policy making. What ever is the demand of the people most of the time policy makers design policy in favor of their own interest rather then in favor of public. If they do follow the demands of the public still they give first preference to their benefits then to the benefits of the common man. (Timothy, 2007) Some times, government adopts such policies under which they tend to fulfill the needs of the public by hook or by crook.
As America did after the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Some times, policy decisions are not based upon fake needs rather than real needs as happened in case of Iraq war. It also seems that policies are not always decided on the basis of demands of people but in fact it depends on the prospect of portraying demands. Therefore, it is necessary to portray demands as they are otherwise government official will design the policy as the perceive is in favor of people. (Timothy, 2007) Public policy is concerned with both public and private sectors.
It is not only directly concerned with the public sector but also monitors the functioning of the private sector organizations. Market innovations and procedures can be introduced in the designing of public policy. These innovations were named as “market-base mechanisms”. Under this study certain police were designed and implemented following the “market-base mechanism”. (Robert et al, 2005) Competition was considered to be the major factor to influence any policy. It was believed that more desired results can be obtained from the public sectors. E. g.
it was under this approach that competition among many private sector companies was introduced for the construction of prison in UK. And the cheap and quality services of the private companies showed that a slight change in the public sector is a positive sign. (Robert et al, 2005) It was found that the under this mechanism changes in one area affect the other area as well. Consequently, there seem to be more rooms for the adaptability of a novel public policy. The proper method of the implementation of the “market-base mechanism” in public sector is also necessary.
If this mechanism is not properly introduce it will bring loss and rejection to the policy decider rather than appraisal. On the whole it seems that government should introduce competition in the public sector, because with the help of competition the aims and goals of the policies can be more efficiently achieved. (Robert et al, 2005) The “market-base” strategy also makes the problems in more understandable for the policy maker. This increased understanding helps the policy makers to work more effectively and achieve their goals more easily.
Moreover, evaluation of the public policy depends upon its implementation. If the policy is not designed according to the demand and need of the people it will fail to bring profit and will instead bring disapproval. Hence, the implementation is the necessary step in the evaluation of any public policy. Both the “policy makers and economists” should work cooperatively with the government in designing a policy, as it will help them to solve the relevant problem. Hence, it seems that all proper designing, implementing and evaluation of a public policy are necessary to make reforms in both public and private sectors.
(Robert et al, 2005) In order to facilitate appropriate application of the public policy, it is necessary for the policy to be explicitly and satisfactorily designed. The policy makers should be competent enough to recognize the problem of the public and implement it accordingly. The aims and objectives of the policy should be clear and long lasting. No government official is authorize to design a policy in his/her interest and to evade it when the interests are fulfilled. Opinion of local people should be taken into account while formulating a public policy.
Once a policy is implemented its evaluation is very much necessary. Evaluation actually is necessary to measure the outcome of the implemented public policy. And it is twith the help of policy evaluation that we recognize a need to change the existing policy according to the demands of the people. (Robert et al, 2005) REFERENCES J. David Kennamer; Public Opinion, the Press, and the Public Policy. 1994. Greenwood Publishing Group. UK Michael Brennan, Penthea Burns, Marty Zanghi; Influencing Public Policy in Your State: a Guide for Youth in Care. September 2001. Youth Leadership Advisory Team. UK
Neil Bradford; Placed-Based Public Policy: Towards a New Urban and Community Agenda for Canada. March 2005. Canada Policy Research Networks Inc. UK Robert Hahn, Justin Coombs, Ciara Kalmus, Carlos Razo, Katherine curry, LECG; Public Policy: Using Market-Based Approaches. September 2005. DIT ECONOMICS. UK Timothy Sexton; How Political theory affects Public Policy Decision making, 4 January 2007. Associated content. UK Wayne Parsons; Administration and Public Policy; Making and the Modernization of British Government from Muddling through to Muddling Up-Evidence based Policy. 2002. SAGE publications. UK